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The Last Ottoman Generation and the Making of the Modern Middle East

Saladin’s Pilgrims and the War to End WarsModernity, Militarism, and Colonialism in the Making of the Middle EastLegaciesNotesOttoman Modernity in the Long Nineteenth Century: Training State Servants and Making CitizensModern Education and a Late Ottoman ChildhoodModernizing the State Modernizing the StateConscriptionState Military Education and Elite Civil EducationMilitary Culture and Late Ottoman SocietyThe Military Academy and Staff CollegeModern InfrastructureOttoman Sons Become Saviors of the NationCivilian Politicians and Civil-School GraduatesConclusionsNotesThe Theory and Practice of Colonialism in the Post-Ottoman Middle EastEvents in the Formation of the Colonial Middle EastRepublic as sole independent Ottoman successor stateWartime Arrangements and ProclamationsThe Paris Peace Conference and Post-War NegotiationsThe San Remo Conference and the Treaty of SevresThe League of Nations and Anglo-French Colonialism in the Middle EastMandate Governance in PracticeThe Mandate in PalestineThe Mandate in Syria and LebanonThe Mandate in Iraq and TransjordanConclusionsNotesLosing the War and Fighting the Settlement: The Post-Ottoman Middle East Takes Shape, 1918-1922Events in the Former Ottoman Realms, 1918 1923The Battle of Nablus and the End of the Ottoman EmpireAllenby and Faysal in DamascusPopular Struggle after the ArmisticeThe Anatolian Model and Hope for Salvation, 1920San Remo and the Nabi Musa Demonstrations in JerusalemIraq in RevoltAnatolia and CiliciaSyria and MaysalunChurchill Salvages the SettlementPalestine May Day Riots 1921Ibrahim Hananu Puts the Settlement on TrialEvents in AnatoliaYasin Pa§a Returns to IraqThe Last SultanConclusionsNotesLeague of Nations Hopes and Disappointments: the Return of Armed Struggle in the Post-Ottoman Era, 1923-1927Events in the Former Ottoman Realms, 1923 1927The Lausanne ConferenceThe League of Nations Picks up the PiecesThe End of the CaliphateMilitary Confrontation EclipsedCivilian Politicians in Damascus and JerusalemShakib Arslan in ExileThe Rise of Yasin al-Hashimi and the Anglo-Iraqi TreatyArmed Insurgency in the French MandatesWilliam Rappard, the League of Nations, and FranceThe End of the Syrian RevoltDamage Control at Geneva, 1926Aftermath of the Syrian Revolt Aftermath of the Syrian RevoltConclusions: Colonial Anxieties and Imperial RivalriesNotesColonial Constitutions and Treaties: Post-Ottoman Militarism, 1927-1936Events in the Former Ottoman Realms, 1927 1935Constitutions and Colonial Treaties: IraqSyria and Lebanon Syria and LebanonTransjordanNuri al-Sacid Delivers: The Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930Syrian Elections and Martial LawIndependent IraqIraqi Independence and its DiscontentsIbrahim Hananu and a False Start for the Franco-Syrian TreatyDesperation in Palestine and the Death of Musa Kazim al-HusayniYasin al-Hashimi Retires and then ReturnsFawzi al-Qawuqji in BaghdadIbrahim Hananu Exits the SceneConclusionsNotesThe Final Days of the Last Ottoman Generation, 1936-1938Events in the Former Ottoman Realms, 1936 1937The Palestine RevoltThe Franco-Syrian Treaty and Syrian “Independence”The Fall of Yasin Pa§a al-HashimiYasin Pa$a in Exile among the SyriansThe Death and Funeral of Yasin al-HashimiConclusionsNotesEvents in the Former Ottoman Realms and the Middle East Mandates, 1937 1939Saladin’s Companions and the Beginning of the End for Anglo-French Colonialism in the Middle EastThe Alexandretta CrisisThe Peel Commission and the End of the Palestine MandateGeneral Amnesty in SyriaThe End of the League of Nations MandatesThe Mandate Inheritance in the Arab EastNotesSelect Bibliography

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