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Ottoman Modernity in the Long Nineteenth Century: Training State Servants and Making Citizens

Events in the Final Ottoman Decades

1839 76 Ottoman legal and governmental reforms, including

legal equality, state education, local, and provincial elections, etc.

  • 1876 Ottoman Constitution
  • 1876 1909 Sultan Abdul Hamid II
  • 1877 Sultan Abdul Hamid II dissolves constitutional


  • 1877 8 Russo Ottoman War in Balkans
  • 1878 Congress of Berlin introduces the “national idea” to international settlements and partition plans. Great Power sponsorship of client “nations” was thought to limit the possibility of direct Great Power annexations, and direct conflict
  • 1882 1956 British invasion and occupation of Ottoman Egypt
  • 1870s 1890s Mass expansion of Ottoman state education
  • 1908 Ottoman army forces Ottoman Constitutional Restoration
  • 1909 Failed Counter Revolution causes abdication of Sultan Abdul Hamid
  • 1911 Italian invasion of Tripoli province (Libya)
  • 1912 13 First and Second Balkan Wars

June 28, 1914 Heir to Hapsburg throne assassinated in

former Ottoman provincial capital Sarajevo.

Resulting ultimatums start World War I

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