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  • 1. Shakib Arslan, Sira Dhatiyya (Beirut: Dar al Talica, 1969), p. 262. Quoted in William Cleveland, Islam Against The West: Shakib Arslan and the Campaign for Islamic Nationalism (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1985), p. 40.
  • 2. BNA CO 730/150/6, “Profiles and Assessments,” “YASIN PASHA AL HASHIMI,” 1932.
  • 3. Interview with granddaughter in law May Ziwar al Daftari, London, May 8, 2016, and May al Daftari’s forthcoming book, Yasin al Hashimi: Sira wa dhikrayat. Ms. Al Daftari conducted extensive interviews with Nicmat Yasin al Hashimi al Daftari in the early 1990s. Nuri al Sacid, Mudhakkirat Nuri al Sacid cAn al Harakat al cAskariyya lil Jaysh al cArabi fi al Hijaz wa Suriyya, 1916 1918: al Fariq al Rukn Nuri al Sacid cala tullab Kulliyyat al Arkan bi Baghdad fi Mayis 1947 (Beirut: al Dar al cArabiyya lil Mawsucat, 1987); also see Phebe Marr, “Yasin al Hashimi: The Rise and Fall of a Nationalist (A Study of the Nationalist Leadership in Iraq, 1920 1936),” unpublished PhD dissertation, Harvard University, 1966, p. 71.
  • 4. Eugene Rogan, The Fall of the Ottomans: The Great War in the Middle East, 1914 1920 (London: Basic Books, 2015), p. 80. Rogan’s new book on the Ottoman Great War now surpasses all earlier treatments.
  • 5. Mustafa Aksakal, The Ottoman Road to War in 1914: The Ottoman Empire and the First World War (Cambridge University Press, 2008). Christopher Clark, Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914 (London: Penguin, 2014).
  • 6. BNA, Cabinet Office [CAB] 41/34, Asquith cabinet minutes, July 12, 1913.
  • 7. The most relevant document is a secret report from Leo Amery to the Imperial War Cabinet, titled, “War Aims and Military Policy,” BNA CAB 25/87, May 28, 1918. Earlier War Cabinet minutes echo these themes. CAB 29, April 12, 1917.
  • 8. BNA CAB 19/1, 1917 18. The “Dardanelles Commission Report” princi pally blamed Churchill for the catastrophe.
  • 9. Hasan Kayali, Arabs and Young Turks: Ottomanism, Arabism, and Islamism in the Ottoman Empire, 1908 1918 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).
  • 10. Priya Satia, Spies in Arabia: The Great War and the Cultural Foundations of Britain’s Covert Empire in the Middle East (Oxford University Press, 2008).
  • 11. Mustafa Aksakal, The Ottoman Road to War in 1914: The Ottoman Empire and the First World War (Cambridge University Press, 2008), p. 16.
  • 12. Elie Kedourie, In the Anglo Arab Labyrinth: The McMahon Husayn Correspondence and its Interpretations, 1914 1939 (Cambridge University Press, 1976).
  • 13. McMahon to Husayn, October 24, 1915. First published in the appendix of George Antonius, The Arab Awakening: The Story of the Arab National Movement (London: H. Hamilton, 1938).
  • 14. The Husayn McMahon correspondence has been the subject of countless books and articles, some accusing British leaders of deceit, some exonerat ing them.
  • 15. BNA CAB 25/87, “War Aims and Military Policy,” June 15, 1918.
  • 16. Matthew Hughes, Allenby and British Strategy in the Middle East, 1917 1919 (London: Frank Cass, 1999), p. 91.
  • 17. BNA CAB 23/2 WC 96, March 14, 1917. The “Proclamation of Baghdad” was written by the War Cabinet and sent telegraphically to General Maude for public declaration.
  • 18. Lenin issued his “Decree on Peace,” November 8, 1917, and it was pub lished in Izvestia the following day.
  • 19. The Times, November 23, 1917, “A Leninist Armistice.” British elite opi nion considered the Russian revolution a Jewish project.
  • 20. The Times, November 9, 1917. Headlines on pages 6 and 7 read, “Turks Defeated on Two Fronts,” “Palestine for the Jews,” “Victory in Palestine,” and “America and the War.” Eugene Rogan makes the point about renego tiating Sykes Picot, Rogan, The Fall of the Ottomans, p. 350.
  • 21. The language is McMahon’s. “We confirm our approval of the Arab Khalifate when it should be proclaimed. We declare once more that his Majesty’s Government would welcome the resumption of the Khalifate by an Arab of true race.” BNA FO 371/2486, 125293/34982 McMahon’s dis patch no. 94, Secret, Cairo, August 26, 1915.
  • 22. Woodrow Wilson, speech to a joint session of Congress, January 8, 1918.
  • 23. Erez Manela, The Wilsonian Moment: Self Determination and the International Origins of Anti Colonial Nationalism (Oxford University Press, 2007), p. 41.
  • 24. David Lloyd George, The Truth About the Peace Treaties, and Jean Martet, Clemenceu: The Events of His Life as Told by Himself to his Former Secretary

Jean Martet (London: Longman, 1930), p. 190. Both quoted in Hughes,

Allenby and British Strategy, pp. 123 4.

  • 25. The quote originates with Clemenceu’s interpreter, but Lloyd George’s flexible standards of testimony are amply attested. Paul Mantoux, Les Deliberations Du Conseil Des Quatre (24 Mars 28 Juin 1919) (Paris: CNRS, 1955) vol. I, p. 379.
  • 26. BNA FO 371/4310, Preliminary Peace Conference, session of February 14, 1919.
  • 27. Rustum Haydar, Mudhakkirat Rustum Haydar (Beirut: al Dar al carabiyya al mausucat, 1988), pp. 9 10.
  • 28. “King Crane report on the Near East,” in Editor and Publisher, 55, 27. Oberlin College holds the extensive King Crane Archive, owing to the role of Oberlin President Henry King as co chair of the commission. Much of the collection is digitized. Thanks to Leonard Smith for this citation.
  • 29. James Gelvin, “The Ironic Legacy of the King Crane Commission,” in David Lesch (ed.), The Middle East and the United States (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996), p. 14.
  • 30. “Crane and King’s Long Hid Report on the Near East,” New York Times, December 3, 1922.
  • 31. Robert de Caix, “The Question of Syria,” The New Europe, September 4, 1919. The next day the Spectator complained woefully that Britain kept its promises and certainly did not desire to add to its already heavy responsibil ities. Besides, the fault lay with the incomplete work of the Peace Conference. Spectator, “France and Syria,” September 5, 1919.
  • 32. BNA War Office [WO] 32/5730, 107A, War Office to Allenby, November 27, 1919.
  • 33. FO 406/41, Sir E. Crowe to Earl Curzon, December 3, 1919.
  • 34. LN, Geneva, carton R16, “Mandate for Palestine, 1922.”
  • 35. Manela, The Wilsonian Moment, p. 39.
  • 36. LN R13, November 7, 1919, Eric Forbes Adam to Eric Drummond.
  • 37. LN R13, 1919. Alfred Milner to Robert Cecil.
  • 38. LN R14 contains drafts and material on the mandate treaties.
  • 39. Manchester Guardian, “The Problem of the Mandates,” January 29, 1920, in LN Mandates, carton R20.
  • 40. Yuval Ben Bassat, Petitioning the Sultan: Justice and Protest in Late Ottoman Palestine (London: I.B. Tauris, 2013), pp. 27 30.
  • 41. LN mandate, carton R14, Husayni to director of mandate section, letters of December 18, 1920, and February 12, 1921.
  • 42. Khayr ad Din al Zirikli, al Aclam: qamus tarajim li ashar ar rijal wa’n nisa min carab a’l mustacribin al mustastriqin, 8 vols., reprint of c.1950 (Beirut: Dar al cIlm lil Malayin, 1990), vol. VII, p. 326.
  • 43. Cleveland, Islam Against the West, pp. 49 50.
  • 44. LN R15, January 11, 1921, Rappard to Drummond.
  • 45. LN R15, September 23, 1921, Drummond to Rappard. Emphasis in original.
  • 46. LN mandates, R39, Congres Syrio Palestinien, Geneve, August 23 September 21, 1921. Appel adresse a la Deuxieme Assemblee generale.
  • 47. LN R22, 14993, August 25, 1921, report filed by Rappard.
  • 48. Susan Pedersen, “The Meaning of the Mandates System: An Argument,” Geschichte und Gesellschaft, 32:4 (Oct Dec. 2006), 560 82.
  • 49. This reconstruction owes much to Susan Pedersen’s various articles.
  • 50. LN R17,October 10, 1925, committee report on petitions.
  • 51. LN R2282, for one of hundreds of examples in many files.
  • 52. LN R27 1926 testimony of de Caix.
  • 53. LN R15, Jamal Husseini to Council of the League of Nations, June 20, 1922.
  • 54. Following here Rashid Khalidi, The Iron Cage: The Story of the Palestinian Struggle for Statehood (Boston: Beacon, 2006), pp. xlv xlvi.
  • 55. LN R41, ARRETE no. 336, “Reglementant provisoiromont l’organisation administrative de l’Etat du GRAND LIBAN,” September 10, 1920. September 27, 1921. Report from William Rappard from a meeting with Soliman Kenaan, representative member of the Ottoman administrative council for Mount Lebanon, protesting the French Mandate. He bore a petition signed by seven of the twelve members of the council, requesting independence for Mount Lebanon.
  • 56. Engin Deniz Akarli, The Long Peace: Ottoman Lebanon, 1861 1920 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), pp. 148 9.
  • 57. LN R41, “Copie de la declaration en date du 10 Juillet 1920 du Conseil Administratif du Liban.”
  • 58. Philip Khoury, “’Abd al Rahman Shahbandar: an Independence Leader of Interwar Syria,” in Camille Mansour and Leila Fawaz (eds.), Transformed Landscapes: Essays on Palestine and the Middle East in Honor of Walid Khalidi (New York: American University in Cairo Press, 2009), p. 57.
  • 59. Gerard Khoury, Une tutelle coloniale Le mandat frangais en Syne et au Liban Ecrits politiques de Robert de Caix (Paris: Belin, 2006).
  • 60. Khoury, “’Abd al Rahman Shahbandar,” pp. 58 9, and Benjamin Thomas White, The Emergence of Minorities in the Middle East: The Politics of Community in French Mandate Syria (Edinburgh University Press, 2011), p. 11.
  • 61. Jean David Mizrahi, Genese de l’Etat mandataire: Service des renseignements et bandes armees en Syne et au Liban dans les annees 1920 (Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 2003).
  • 62. BNA CO 730/21/18407, minute by Churchill, April 1922, quoted in Peter Sluglett, Britain in Iraq: Contriving King and Country (New York: Columbia University Press, 2007), p. 77.
  • 63. Marr, “YasTn al HashimT,” pp. 98 9.
  • 64. Sluglett, Britain in Iraq, p. 63.
  • 65. Eugene L. Rogan, Frontiers of the State in the Late Ottoman Empire: Transjordan, 1850 1921 (Cambridge University Press, 2002), p. 160.
  • 66. Mary C. Wilson, King Abdullah, Britain and the Making of Jordan (Cambridge University Press, 1990), p. 48.
  • 67. Hasan Kayali, “Elections and the Electoral Process in the Ottoman Empire, 1876 1919,” International Journal of Middle East Studies, 27:3 (August, 1995), pp. 265 86.
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