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Notes

  • 1. Al Ahram, November 4, 1922.
  • 2. The Times, “Lord Curzon at Lausanne. Turkish Claims Refuted. Our Pledges to the Arabs. Ismet Pasha’s Statement,” January 24, 1923.
  • 3. L’Echo de Paris, “Mecontents du Reglement de la Conference les Turcs n’ont pas Encore Parle,” November 23, 1922.
  • 4. The Times, January 24, 1923.
  • 5. BNA CAB 21/61, “British Policy in Mesopotamia,” memo from Lord Curzon on why Britain must keep Iraq, September 1917.
  • 6. The Times, “Ismet Pasha’s Statement,” January 24, 1923.
  • 7. LN, Carton R16, William Rappard, “Report of an Interview with Musa Kazim Pasha al Husayni, Mr. Shibli Jamal, Amin Bey al Tamimi.” Rappard identified them as delegates of the “Syrian Palestinian Congress,” but in their petitions they called themselves members of the “Palestinian Arab Congress.”
  • 8. FO 371/10838, October 26, 1925.
  • 9. LN Transjordan report, 1924.
  • 10. LN R16, December 19, 1922, Rappard, “Report of an Interview with Mousa [sic] Kazim el Husseini, Amin Bey Tamimi, Mr. Shibly Jamal, Syrio Palestinian delegation.”
  • 11. LN R16, Rappard, “Record of Conversation with Mr. Weizmann,” October 5, 1922.
  • 12. LN, S226, “Palestine Disturbances.” There are many letters and petitions supporting Zionism in the League archives, including many written and signed by famous people like Albert Einstein.
  • 13. Bruce Clark, Twice a Stranger: How Mass Expulsion Forged Modern Greece and Turkey (London: Granta, 2006).
  • 14. LN, many files. See, for example, R 4096, 1925 32. Many Arabic petitions from Louis Ghaleb, formerly Lebanese Ottoman, at the time of the letters a stateless resident of Yugoslavia, and R2307 “Mandate over Syria,” claim that the mandate government should pay an Ottoman pension from the state telegraph company. See also R58, “Iraq.”
  • 15. LN R28, “Events in Syria,” November 23, 1926.
  • 16. LN R58, Iraq, many letters, 1919 1924. Letter quoted, November 10, 1923.
  • 17. The Times, March 5, 1924, “The End of the Caliphate.”
  • 18. The main Damascus nationalist daily, al Muqtabas, ran a weekly column during the 1920s titled “News from Istanbul,” and in April and May 1926 al Muqtabas ran an eight part, serialized front page feature titled “Mudhakkirat Mustafa Kamal.”
  • 19. LN. The League archives are full of aggrieved petitions from people who had lost citizenship rights and property, and sought some redress from the League as a last, and obviously futile, resort.
  • 20. Eric Ztircher, The Unionist Factor: The Role of the Committee of Union and Progress in the Turkish National Movement, 1905 1926 (Leiden: Brill Publishers, 1984).
  • 21. Mesut Uyar, “Ottoman Arab Officers between Nationalism and Loyalty,” War in History, 20:4 (2013), 538.
  • 22. Personal correspondence with Mesut Uyar, August 1, 2014.
  • 23. Fayiz Sara, Sacid al cAs, 1889 1936: Hayatahu Kifahahu (Damascus: man shurat wazara al thaqafa, 1993), p. 35.
  • 24. For al cAs, see Adham al Jundi, Tarikh al thawrat al suriyya fi cahd al intidab al fransi (Damascus, 1960), p. 254. For Shallash, see Eliezer Tauber, “The Struggle for Dayr al Zur: The Determination of the Borders between Syria and Iraq,” IJMES, 23 (1991), 379.
  • 25. Taha al Hashimi, Mudhakkirat Taha al Hashimi (Beirut: Dar al Ta’lica, 1967 78), p. 8.
  • 26. Philip S. Khoury, Syria and the French Mandate: The Politics of Arab Nationalism, 1920 1945 (Princeton University Press, 1987), p. 142.
  • 27. The Times, “Damascus Riots,” April 13, 1925.
  • 28. BNA FO 371/10838, April 24, 1925, Smart to Chamberlain.
  • 29. Khoury, Syria and the French Mandate, p. 144.
  • 30. cAbd al Rahman Shahbandar, Mudhakkirat wa khutab (Damascus: Syrian Minsitry of Culture, 1993), pp. 145 51. Speech for the opening ceremony of Hizb al shcab, June 5, 1925. Summarized in Hisham Nashabi, “The Political Parties in Syria, 1918 1939,” unpublished M.A. thesis, American University of Beirut, 1952, pp. 95 6.
  • 31. Shakib Arslan, Sira Dhatiyya (Beirut: Dar al Talica, 1969), pp. 264 5.
  • 32. William L. Cleveland, Islam Against The West: Shakib Arslan and the Campaign for Islamic Nationalism (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1985), pp. 41 2.
  • 33. Cleveland, Islam Against The West, pp. 43 4. Mujahid al sharqfi al gharb.
  • 34. BNA CO, Report on Iraq Administration, April 1922 March 1923, p. 15; Marr, “Yasin al Hashimi,” p. 117.
  • 35. Marr, “Yasin al Hashimi,” pp. 118 19.
  • 36. BNA CO 730/150/6, “Profiles and Assessments,” “YASIN PASHA AL HASHIMI,” 1932.
  • 37. BNA CO 730/150/6, “Profiles and Assessments,” “YASIN PASHA AL HASHIMI,” 1932.
  • 38. I owe this insight to Toby Dodge, Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), pp. 51 2. And BNA CO 730/35, CO 15296, March 31, 1922.
  • 39. Marr, “Yasin al Hashimi,” pp. 140 1.
  • 40. Robert de Caix, La Syne (Paris: Societe de l’histoire nationale, Plon, 1931).
  • 41. Benjamin Thomas White, The Emergence of Minorities in the Middle East: The Politics of Community in French Mandate Syria (Edinburgh University Press, 2011). White’s book is now the best exploration of the mandate pro cess of making minorities.
  • 42. LN R22, Arabic petition with French translation and cover letter from Shakib Arslan, signed and sealed from Sultan al Atrash, Ahmad Muraywid, and Mahmud Iqab, September 1922.
  • 43. Michael Provence, “Druze Shaykhs, Arab Nationalists, and Grain Merchants in Jabal Hawran,” in Kamal Salibi (ed.), The Druze: Realities and Perceptions (London: Druze Heritage Foundation, 2005).
  • 44. Munir al Rayyis, al Kitab al dhahabi lil thawrat al wataniyya fi al mashriq al carabi: al thawra al suriyya al kubra (Beirut: Dar al Talica, 1969), pp. 190 1. BNA FO 371/4310, 13028/251, Smart to Chamberlain, August 29, 1925. Nashabi, “The Political Parties in Syria,” p. 103.
  • 45. Ex Ottoman military officers involved included Sacid al cAs, Muhammad cIzz al Din al Halabi, Fawzi al Qauwuqji, Zaki al Durubi,Yahya al Hayati, cAdil and Nabih al cAzma, Zaki al Halabi, cAli al Atrash, Ramadan

Shallash, Husni Sahkr, Mazhar al Sibaci, and Mustafa al Wasfi, among many others. Among Damascene nationalist politicians of the last Ottoman generation, nearly all participated, or later claimed to have participated.

  • 46. MAE Nantes, carton 1704, BR 159, September 2, 1925, “Attitude de Mme. Shahbandar.” Mme. Adib Affandi cArab cUqla passed this report to the intelligence service.
  • 47. MAE Nantes, carton 1704, BR 164, September 9, 1925. The meeting of September 7 brought together thirty seven women at the house of Mme. cUthman al Sharabati.
  • 48. LN R24, Syrian Palestinian Congress, list of casualties and property destroyed, July 3, 1926. The congress compiled, from French sources, a list of 11,800 insurgent deaths between September 1925 and May 1926. The congress, which generally published figures lower than British newspapers, listed 3,509 civilian deaths in the period in the area surrounding Damascus. The total mandate population was under 2.5 million, and less than half that in the region surrounding Damascus.
  • 49. Ministere des Affaires Etrangeres, Archives Diplomatiques Nantes [MAE Nantes], carton 1704, Bulletin de Renseignements (BR) 189, October 10, 1925, «Opinion publique de Damas.»
  • 50. BNA FO 371/10835, October 10, 1925. See Alice Poulleau, A Damas sous les bombes: Journal d’une Frangaise pendant la revolte Syrienne, 1924 1926 (Yvetot: Bretteville, 1926), p. 81. MAE Nantes, carton 1704, BR 197, October 20, 1925. «19/10/25 16h.10 Un officier revenant de la citadelle signale le bombardement [text cut] partie de Souk est en feu. Resultat du bombardement, tres effectif. Le bombardement continue methodiquement. »
  • 51. La Syne, October 8, 1925, quoted in Poulleau, A Damas sous les bombes, pp. 80 1; The Times, “Parade of Corpses,” October 27, 1925; Le Temps, October 24, 1925.
  • 52. MAE Nantes, carton 1704, BR 243, December 7, 1925, pp. 4 7. cIzz al Din al Halabi and cAli al Atrash.
  • 53. MAE Nantes, carton 1704, BR 210, November 4, 1925.
  • 54. MAE Nantes, carton 1704, BR 213, November 7, 1925. This report was confirmed by interviews with elderly Christian villagers. Interview with Wadica al Macri, 87 year old former Mukhtar (headman) of Saydnaya, August 10, 2002. His father was Mukhtar during 1925.
  • 55. L’Echo de Paris, «Le Crime: Sarrail envoie au massacre la colonne Michaud,» October 5, 1925, The Times, September 29, 1925, “Marshal Lyautey Resigns, Maker of French Morocco, A Brilliant Career,” and August 9, 1925, “Agitation Against General Sarrail.”
  • 56. The Times, “M. de Jouvenel and his Mission,” November 9, 1925.
  • 57. See, for example, Edward Mead Earle, The Nation, “Syria An Acid test for the Mandate System,” January 13, 1926. This article was read and dis tributed among the staff of the Mandates Commission in Geneva, and is in the archive there.
  • 58. Philip S. Khoury, “Factionalism among Syrian Nationalists during the French Mandate,” International Journal of Middle East Studies, 13:4 (November 1981), 456.
  • 59. The Times, “M. de Jouvenel in Turkey,” February 13, 1926.
  • 60. These attempts are mentioned in Fawzi al Qawuqji, Mudhakkirat Fawzi al Qawuqji, reprint of both volumes of 1975 edition, edited by Khayriyya Qasimiyya (Damascus: Dar al Numayr, 1995), p. 115.
  • 61. BNA FO 371/11505, “Arrete No. 53,” “Confiscation of Rebel Estates,” January 26, 1926. Also «Arrete No. 97, Arrete reglementant le mode depercep tion et d’administration des amendes collectives imposees pour faits de pillages et de banditisme»; Bennett J. Doty, The Legion of the Damned (New York: The Century Co., 1928), pp. 172 5.
  • 62. [Service des Renseignements] Haut Commissariat du mandat fran9ais, La Syne et le Liban sous l’occupation et le Mandat frangais, 1919 1927 (Nancy: Berger Levrault, 1929), p. 53. See the Great Revolt Mixed Court files at the Syrian National Archive (muhakamat al mukhtalifa, Markaz al Watha’iq al Tarikhiyya), Damascus.
  • 63. Haut Commissariat de la Republique Fran9aise en Syrie et au Liban, Recueil des actes administratifs du Haut commissariat de la Republique Frangaise en Syrie et au Liban, vol. VI, 1925 (Beirut: Haut commissariat, 1925), Arretes nos. 4/S and 5/S, pp. 6 11, and LN Minutes of the Eighth Session, p. 22.
  • 64. BNA FO 371/11505, “Le delegation de Damas chez le Haut Commissaire,” Enclosure in no. 174, Consul Beyrout to foreign secretary, December 24, 1925, and Smart to Chamberlain, January 6, 1926.
  • 65. Provence, The Great Syrian Revolt, pp. 108 24.
  • 66. General Charles Andrea, La revolte druze et l'insurrection de Damas (Paris: Payot, 1937), 82; BNA FO 371/11505, Smart to Chamberlain, January 11, 1926.
  • 67. Doty, Legion of the Damned, pp. 172 5.
  • 68. BNA FO 371/11506, Vaughn Russell to Chamberlain, April 1, 1926. “Thus does the work of attrition ruthlessly proceed: the French policy is evidently to crush the rebellion by the maximum use of every mechanical contrivance and with the minimum use of French troops, whose lives are not risked when other troops (i.e. Circassian, Armenian, Kurdish or other irregular) can be employed.”
  • 69. BNA FO 371/11505, Smart to Chamberlain, January 20, 1926.
  • 70. LN, Minutes of the Eighth Session, pp. 74 5, 151.
  • 71. LN R24, reproduced in Minutes of the Eighth Session, annex iii, “Executive Committee of the Syrian Palestinian Congress, Appeal Addressed to the Sixth General Assembly of the League of Nations,” September 29, 1925,

p. 181.

  • 72. BNA FO 371/11505, Smart to Chamberlain, February 5, 1926. “As soon as all hope is lost of succor from Geneva, my informants believe the rebel resistance will collapse.”
  • 73. LN, Minutes of the Eighth Session, “Letter of Emir Shakib Arslan,” February 20, 1926, p. 156.
  • 74. LN, Minutes of the Eighth Session, p. 168; The Times, “The French Report on Syria,” February 17, 1926.
  • 75. LN, Minutes of the Eighth Session, p. 159.
  • 76. LN, Minutes of the Eighth Session, p. 158.
  • 77. See many examples in LN, R21, R22, R23, R24, R25, R26, and R27.
  • 78. LN, Minutes of the Eighth Session, p. 165.
  • 79. LN, R25, Eighth Session, “Comments Submitted by the Accredited Representative of France,” p. 150.
  • 80. LN, Minutes of the Eight Session, pp. 148 9.
  • 81. LN, Minutes of the Eighth Session, p. 152.
  • 82. LN, Minutes of the Eighth Session, pp. 150 3.
  • 83. LN, Report to the Council of the League of Nations on the Work of the Eighth (Extraordinary) Session of the Commission, March 8, 1926.
  • 84. LN R27, Lugard notes. I have cited the draft version from Lugard’s notes, not the version that was published in the commission report. The Lugard draft seems a more illustrative, less edited, representation of the collective conception of the mandate.
  • 85. BNA FO 371/11507, Vaughn Russell, September 7, 1926, Enclosure, “Extract from La Syne,” August 3, 1926.
  • 86. LN, Minutes of the Tenth Session, “Collective Fines in Gold,” p. 136.
  • 87. LN, Minutes of the Tenth Session, p. 129.
  • 88. LN, Minutes of the Tenth Session, p. 140.
  • 89. LN, Minutes of the Tenth Session, p. 141.
  • 90. LN, Minutes of the Tenth Session, p. 140.
  • 91. LN, Minutes of the Tenth Session, p. 146.
  • 92. LN, Minutes of the Tenth Session, “Copies of Laws and Regulations,”

p. 120.

  • 93. LN PMC, Report on the Work of the Tenth Session of the Commission, pp. 4 19, November 1926.
  • 94. Several interviews with Mansour Sultan al Atrash (1925 2006), in 1999 and 2000.
  • 95. Laila Parsons, The Commander: Fawzi al Qawuqji and the Fight for Arab Independence (New York: Hill and Wang, 2016), is a masterful reconstruc tion of the period of 1926 and 1927.
  • 96. Jurj Faris, Man hum fi calam al cArabi (Damascus: Maktab al Dirasat al Suriyya wa al carabiyya, 1957), pp. 344 5. Ramadan Shallash. Stipends for domesticated revolutionaries were a feature of French colonial rule in both North Africa and Syria.
 
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