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Notes

  • 1. LN, R4101, Syria, 1936. Excerpted in PMC Report by M. Palacios, November 15, 1937.
  • 2. Oriente Moderno, Anno 16, no. 2 (February 1936), 61. Much of this recon struction is based on Philip S. Khoury, Syria and the French Mandate: The Politics of Arab Nationalism, 1920 1945 (Princeton University Press, 1987).
  • 3. BNA FO 684/9, Damascus Quarterly report, January March 1936, Damascus Consul to FO, p. 3. Of course, al Khuri had learned French in Ottoman schools, including the Istanbul law college, and studied in Paris before the war. Jurj Faris, Man Huwa fi Suriyya 1949 (Damascus: Maktab al Dirasat al Suriyya wa al carabiyya, 1950), p. 155.
  • 4. Khoury, Syria and the French Mandate, p. 458.
  • 5. BNA FO 684/9, Syria, Syria File, February 10, 1936, Damascus Consul to FO, and Damascus Quarterly report, January March 1936, Damascus Consul to FO. LN R4101. Petition from Dr. Shishshakli comparing Ottoman enlightenment to French despotism.
  • 6. BNA FO 684/9, Embassy Baghdad to FO, February 24, 1936, on pan Arab agitation.
  • 7. The Times, “Palestine Quiet: Arabs Fail to Extend Strike,” April 25, 1936.
  • 8. Figures from the official newspaper Les Echos, and cited in FO 684/9, Damascus Quarterly report, January March 1936, Damascus Consul to FO.
  • 9. Al Qabas, “Hashim al Atasi: Bayan Hizb al Watani,” February 10, 1936.
  • 10. L’Echo de Paris, “Replatrage Syrien,” March 2, 1936. Khoury, Syria and the French Mandate, p. 461.
  • 11. The recent dissertations of Charles W. Anderson and Steven Wagner are now the most comprehensive works on the Palestine revolt. See Charles W. Anderson, “From Petition to Confrontation: The Palestinian National Movement and the Rise of Mass Politics, 1929 1939,” unpublished PhD dissertation, New York University, 2013, and Steven Wagner, “British Intelligence and Policy in the Palestine Mandate, 1919 1939,” unpublished DPhil dissertation, University of Oxford, 2014.
  • 12. BNA FO 371/20030, E2054, Monthly Intelligence Survey, SECRET, March 31, 1936. Press extracts.
  • 13. BNA FO 371/20030, E2054, Monthly Intelligence Survey, SECRET, March 31, 1936.
  • 14. BNA FO 371/20030, E2890, Monthly Intelligence Survey, SECRET, April 29, 1936, p. 1.
  • 15. Gudrun Kramer, A History of Palestine: From the Ottoman Conquest to the Founding of the State of Israel (Princeton University Press, 2008), p. 271.
  • 16. The Times, “Racial Riots in Palestine,” April 20 , 1936. The Palestine Post.
  • 17. BNA FO 371/20030, E2890, Monthly Intelligence Survey, SECRET, April 29, 1936, p. 3.
  • 18. BNA FO 371/20030, E2890, Monthly Intelligence Survey, SECRET, April 29, 1936, p. 3.
  • 19. BNA FO 371/20030, E3723, Monthly Intelligence Survey, SECRET, June 3, 1936.
  • 20. BNA FO 371/20030, E4041, Weekly Intelligence Survey, SECRET, June 17, 1936. Weekly Intelligence Survey, SECRET, June 17, 1936. Intensity of activity brought a change from monthly to weekly intelligence summaries.
  • 21. Mira’t al Sharq and al Filistin, in press extracts, in BNA FO 371/20030, E4041.
  • 22. BNA FO 371/20030, E4245, Weekly Intelligence Survey, SECRET, June 24, 1936.
  • 23. BNA FO 371/20030, Weekly Intelligence Survey, SECRET, July 1, 1936.
  • 24. BNA FO 371/20030, E4848, Foreign Arab press extracts, Weekly Intelligence Survey, SECRET, July 17, 1936.
  • 25. BNA FO 371/20030, Weekly Intelligence Survey, SECRET, August 18, 1936.
  • 26. BNA FO 371/20030, Weekly Intelligence Survey, SECRET, August 18, 1936.
  • 27. The Times, “Parley in Palestine,” September 1, 1936.
  • 28. BNA FO 371/20030, Weekly Intelligence Survey, SECRET, August 28, 1936.
  • 29. BNA FO 371/20030, Weekly Intelligence Survey, SECRET, “Jewish Affairs: Reactions to the Pasha’s Visit,” August 28, 1936.
  • 30. Hazim Al Mufti, Al cIraq bayn cAhdayn: Yasin al Hashimi wa Bakr Sidqi (Baghdad: 1990), p. 25.
  • 31. BNA FO 371/20030, E5854, Weekly Intelligence Survey, SECRET, September 2, 1936.
  • 32. BNA FO 684/9, “Memorandum on the Interdependence of the Outbreaks in Syria and Palestine during 1936,” Aleppo consul to Eden, August 20, 1936, and Damascus consul to Eden, August 21, 1936.
  • 33. Michael J. Cohen, “Origins of the Arab States’ Involvement in Palestine,” Middle Eastern Studies, 19:2, April 1983, 249.
  • 34. The Times, “Arab and Jew: The Deadlock in Palestine, Lord Lugard’s Proposal,” September 2, 1936.
  • 35. The Times, “Cabinet and Palestine. Full Statement of Policy. More Decisive Policy. A Reluctant Step,” September 7, 1936.
  • 36. BNA FO 371/20030, E5996, Weekly Intelligence Survey, SECRET, September 11, 1936.
  • 37. Al Qawuqji’s leaflets are reproduced in cAbd al Wahhab al Kayali,

Watha’iq al muqawama al Filastiniyya al carabiyya didd al ihtilal al Britani wa al Sahyuniyya (1918 1939) (Beirut: Mu’assat al dirasat al Filastiniyya, 1988), pp. 433 53.

  • 38. BNA FO 371/20030, E6151, Weekly Intelligence Survey, SECRET, September 19, 1936. Laila Parson’s work on Qawuqji is the best illustration of his romantic charisma and controversial actions.
  • 39. BNA FO 371/20030, E 5854, Weekly Intelligence Survey, SECRET, September 2, 1936.
  • 40. Anderson, “From Petition to Confrontation,” p. 739.
  • 41. See the correspondence reproduced in the Institute for Palestine Studies compilation, Bayan Nuwayhed al Hout (ed.), Watha’iq al haraka al wata niyya al Filastiniyya 1918 1939, min awraq Akram Zucaytar (Beirut: Mu’assat al dirasat al Filastiniyya, 1984), pp. 453 4.
  • 42. Sacid al cAs, Safahat min al ayyam al hamra’: mudhakkirat al qa’id Sacid al cAs, 1889 1936 (Jerusalem, 1935, reprint Beirut: al Mu’assasa al cArabiyya lil Dirasat wa al Nashr, 1988). Fayiz Sara, Sacid al cAs, 1889 1936: Hayatahu Kifahahu (Damascus: manshurat wazara al thaqafa, 1993), p. 35. The Palestine Post, “Battle Near Bethlehem,” October 9, 1936.
  • 43. Al Filistin, “Sacid al cAs: Ritha’ al Rihani l faris al thawrat,” November 26, 1936.
  • 44. Watha’iq al haraka al wataniyya al Filastiniyya 1918 1939, p. 461, and BNA FO 371/20031, RAF Intelligence, E6747, Weekly Intelligence Survey, SECRET, October 16, 1936.
  • 45. The Times, “An Arab Leader Got Rid Of: Army’s Tact in Palestine. Allowed to Escape,” October 27, 1936. Fawzi al Qawuqji, Mudhakkirat Fawzi al Qawuqji, reprint of both volumes of 1975 edition, edited by Khayriyya Qasimiyya (Damascus: Dar al Numayr, 1995), p. 241.
  • 46. BNA FO 6371/20031, RAF Intelligence, E7084, Weekly Intelligence Survey, SECRET, October 30, 1936. Quwuqji, Mudhakkirat, p. 251.
  • 47. Khoury, Syria and the French Mandate, p. 467. See Albert Hourani, Syria and Lebanon: A Political Essay (Oxford: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1947), Appendix A, pp. 314 33, for a full text.
  • 48. LN, Minutes of the Thirty Fifth Session, p. 84, and LN R4102, Syria Petitions, 1936. Rappard to PMC Commission, November 2, 1938.
  • 49. Keith Watenpaugh, “Steel Shirts, White Badges, and the Last Qabaday: Fascism, Urban Violence, and Civic Identity in Aleppo under French Rule,” in Nadine Meouchy (ed.), France, Syne et Liban: Les ambiguites et les dynamiques de la relation mandataire (Damas: IFEAD, 2002), pp. 325 48.
  • 50. Oriente Moderno, Anno 16, no. 5 (Maggio 1936), p. 265, and Khoury, Syria and the French Mandate, p. 473.
  • 51. BNA FO 800/298, Private Papers of Sir Archibald Clark Kerr. Cornwallis’ aggrieved letter complaining of Yasin runs to twelve handwritten pages, April 16, 1935.
  • 52. US Dept. of State, Consular Dispatch, December 16, 1936, 890g.01/5. Quoted in Marr, “Yasin al Hashimi,” p. 323.
  • 53. Marr, “Yasin al Hashimi,” p. 346.
  • 54. BNA T161/1147, E 3233/38/91, Clark Kerr to FO, May 20, 1936.
  • 55. BNA FO 800/298, private papers of Sir Archibald Clark Kerr.
  • 56. Jarida al Bilad, June 26, 1936. Quoted in Marr, “Yasin al Hashimi,” p. 351.
  • 57. BNA FO 371/20016, Iraq correspondence, 1936.
  • 58. BNA FO 800/298, private papers of Sir Archibald Clark Kerr, Bateman to Rendel, September 30, 1936.
  • 59. BNA FO 800/298, private papers of Sir Archibald Clark Kerr, Rendel to Clark Kerr, October 8, 1936.
  • 60. BNA FO 371/20017, Rendel to Bateman, September 29, 1936.
  • 61. Taha al Hashimi, Mudhakkirat Taha al Hashimi, 1919 1943 (Beirut: Dar al Talica, 1967), pp. 132 4. Taha al Hashimi’s memoir is a daily recount ing of his visits and activities. Mohammad Tarbush, The Role of the Army in Politics: A Case Study of Iraq to 1941 (London: Kegan Paul International, 1982), p. 128.
  • 62. The Times, “Coup D’Etat in Baghdad. Cabinet Turned Out. Bombs on Baghdad,” October 31, 1936, and BNA T161/1147, telegram no. 265, Clark Kerr to FO, October 29, 1936.
  • 63. Phebe Marr recounts this story, which she seems to have heard at third hand, “Yasin al Hashimi,” p. 310.
  • 64. BNA FO 371/27066, cypher telegram, Baghdad to Cairo, April 17, 1941. Additional secret correspondence from the War Office reads, with hand written corrections, “It was certainly most careless and stupid crazy to have sent these pamphlets to Iraq under commercial bill of lading.” BNA FO 371/27066 WO to FO, April 28, 1941. Strike outs in original.
  • 65. cAbd al Razzaq Hasani, Tarikh al wazirat al cIraiyya (Sidon: Matbac al cIrfan, 1953), vol. IV, p. 85.
  • 66. BNA T161/1147, E7145/1419/93, November 16, 1936. Clark Kerr to Eden. This is the full report on the coup. Hazim al Mufti, Al cIraq bayn cAhdayn: Yasin al Hashimi wa Bakr Sidqi (Baghdad: 1990).
  • 67. BNA T161/1147, telegrams no. 266, 267, and 268, Clark Kerr to FO, October 29, 1936.
  • 68. The Times, “The Coup D’Etat In Iraq. General Jafar Shot,” November 2, 1936.
  • 69. Majid Khadduri interviewed Nuri in the 1940s or 50s when he claimed King Ghazi told him he wanted Yasin out. Nuri’s version sounds self serving, especially considering the other witnesses were all dead. It is worth noting that Ghazi was 24 years old, while Nuri was a veteran politician near 50. Majid Khadduri, Independent Iraq: A Study in Iraqi Politics Since 1932 (Oxford University Press, 1951), p. 69. BNA T 161/1147, telegram No. 269, Clark Kerr to FO, October 30, 1936.
  • 70. BNA FO 800/298, private papers of Sir Archibald Clark Kerr, Clark Kerr to Oliphant, “Personal and secret,” November 2, 1936.
  • 71. BNA FO 371/20014, J.G. Ward, handwritten notation on Clark Kerr to Rendel, November 18, 1936.
  • 72. BNA T161/1147, telegram no. 268 to FO, October 30, 1936.
  • 73. BNA T161/1147, telegrams no. 276, Clark Kerr to FO, November 4, 1936.
  • 74. BNAFO 371/20015, Cecil Edmunds, “Narrative of Events,” October 29, 1936.
  • 75. BNA FO 371/20013, Iraq correspondence, and RAF Intelligence, E7203, Weekly Intelligence Survey, SECRET, November 6, 1936.
  • 76. 800/298, private papers of Sir Archibald Clark Kerr, Clark Kerr to Vauchope, January 25, 1937.
  • 77. Extract from al Ahrar, November 2, 1936, in BNA FO 684/9 (DSC05915).
  • 78. MAE Nantes, BOX 1SL/1/V/1906, Renseignements et Presse, Information Surete Generale, Annee 1936.
  • 79. MAE Nantes, BOX 1SL/1/V/1906, Renseignements et Presse; Information Beyrouth Surete Generale, no. 4192, November 3, 1936.
  • 80. Khoury, Syria and the French Mandate, p. 469.
  • 81. MAE Nantes, BOX 1SL/1/V/1906, Bulletin d’Information, November 5 11, 1936.
  • 82. Filistin, “Asbab al Inqilab fi al cIraq,” published in eight parts, front page, and written by Yusuf Hanna between late November and December 1936. FO 684/9 E7203, Weekly Intelligence Survey (Palestine. Misfiled in Damascus files), SECRET, November 6, 1936.
  • 83. MAE Nantes, many files in: BOX 1SL/1/V/1892. Renseignements et Presse; Information Surete Generale, Annee 1936.
  • 84. al Hashimi, Mudhakkirat, p. 171.
  • 85. al Hashimi, Mudhakkirat, p. 134.
  • 86. al Hashimi, Mudhakkirat, pp. 135 6.
  • 87. Yasin al Hashimi, Radd al Hashimi cala taqrir al sir Hilton Young al iqtisadi (Baghdad: Matba‘at al Najah, 1930).
  • 88. BNA FO 371/20015, Iraq coup, Bateman to Clark Kerr, November 30, 1936. In 1941, Ambassador Kinahan Cornwallis arranged to detain, or per haps assassinate, another Iraqi minister during a stay in hospital in Beirut. BNA T161/1147, Secret cypher telegram, Cornwallis to MilPal, October 1, 1941. “Referring to reports that Mohammad Hassan Salman, Inspector of Education in Rashid Ali’s Government, may now be in Hospital in Beirut. If this report is true, can you arrange his detention pending decision regard ing further action.” Salman was brother of Golden Square Col. Mahmud Salman.
  • 89. MAE Nantes, BOX 1SL/1/V/1893, Renseignements et Presse; Information Surete Generale, Annee 1936, no. 4799, “Relations Bloc Nationaliste avec Yassine Pacha el Hachimi,” December 4, 1936, and no. 5038, December 18, 1936.
  • 90. MAE Nantes, BOX 1SL/1/V/1893, Renseignements et Presse; Information Surete Generale, Annee 1936, no. 4652, November 25, 1936.
  • 91. MAE Nantes, BOX 1SL/1/V/1893, Renseignements et Presse; Information Surete Generale, Annee 1936, no. 4617. Surete Kammechlie, November 20, 1936.
  • 92. al Hashimi, Mudhakkirat, p. 167.
  • 93. BNA T161/1147, Iraq Treasury files. Clark Kerr to Eden, February 14, 1937.
  • 94. BNA T161/1147, Iraq Treasury files, several letters between S.D. Whaley, Bank of England, Baghdad ambassador Clark Kerr, and FO Eden, to insure no assassination rumors circulated, February 1937.
  • 95. al Hashimi, Mudhakkirat, p. 176.
  • 96. Al Qabas, “Fajca al Umma al cArabiyya bi Yasin Pasha al Hashimi,” January 22, 1937, Al Ayyam, “Mata al Hashimi,” January 22, 1937, quoted in Peter Wien, “The Long and Intricate Funeral of Yasin Al Hashimi: Pan Arabism, Civil Religion, And Popular Nationalism In Damascus, 1937,” IJMES, 43: Special Issue 2, May 2011, 271. Peter Wien has written a thorough and outstanding analysis of the episode, which this section draws from.
  • 97. Egyptian Gazette, “Iron Hand in Iraq,” December 9, 1936. Also Manchester Guardian, December 9, 1936, with long, irritated commentary in FO 371/20015, complaining of “wild exaggerations” and asking for intervention with the editors, against reports “that can only do harm.”
  • 98. BNA T161/1147, no. 342, Clark to Eden, August 30, 1937. The same report noted that no Baghdad paper expressed regret at his death. The widow of Jacfar al cAskari threw a party.
  • 99. Al Qabas, quoted in Peter Wien, “The Long and Intricate Funeral of Yasin Al Hashimi,” p. 279.
  • 100. The spirit of optimism is amply attested in all the extant Arab press sources. See al Ayam, al Qabas, al Jamciyya al carabiyya, etc.
  • 101. LN R4103, “First White Book on the Question of Alexandretta and Antioch,” in League of Nations Official Journal, January 1937.
 
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