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It is important to understand the many techniques that the integrative approaches offer as one reads through the following applications. There are many interventions that are used as integrative tools in therapeutic work with clients. This section provides a cursory overview of some of these interventions. The use of differing techniques depends on clients, their presenting problems, the therapeutic value of a chosen intervention, and, of course, the clients' willingness to engage in the proposed application.

Goals of Counseling and Psychotherapy

The first goal of the integrative approaches is to enhance theoretically based counseling with more holistic means of therapeutic guidance and intervention. This goal is evident in the incorporation of many experiential concepts and interventions in counseling theory practice over several decades. The use of integrative approaches engages the client on multiple levels of reality often simultaneously. Through these approaches, client issues are framed not only through thoughts and feelings but also through imagery, creativity, and self-exploration. The second goal of the use of the expressive arts, narrative, and symbolic approaches is to facilitate greater client expression and awareness of self through active experiencing of issues based in psychically disturbed thoughts and feelings. It is this active reviewing of emotions and cognitions that promotes insight in the client. The further process of heightened client awareness and insight is facilitated through theoretical application by the counselor.

The Process of Change

The use of the integrative approaches is based on three contributing factors to client change. First, clients change when their current life perspective no longer represents their desired goals. Second, clients change by accepting control, responsibility, and power for the construction and insightful living of their inner realities. Third, client change is a process of authentic reflection, accountability, and openness toward growth and resolution.

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