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Research Data

The main quantitative analysis is based on the PISA data source for Uruguay and Chile for the year 2009. PISA is an evaluation program of students at age 15, on a representative sample of the population attending secondary education, carried out in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries (currently 30) and also other countries

Table 5.3 Interview sample across selection variables

Educational

achievement

Chile

Uruguay

Total

Schools (three interviews per center)

Municipal

Private

Particular

subsidize

Public

Private

Good results

Xx

Xx

X

x

xx

Bad results

Xx

X

xx

x

4

2

2

3

3

42

Key Informant

N

9

6

15

Total

57

Source: Elaborated by authors

in the rest of the world (27 countries in 2006 and 35 in 2009). Both Chile and Uruguay participated in the 2006 and 2009 rounds. PISA presents a cross-section data set on student achievement at age 15, student characteristics, family background, and school and institutional characteristics.

PISA is an extremely rich source since it provides comparable data for all participant countries about important aspects of educational arrangements and student learning outcomes. One limitation of this data set is that there is selection bias provoked by the fact that not all the 15-year- old cohort is attending school at the time of PISA evaluation. In addition, there are significant differences regarding this aspect between Chile and Uruguay. While in Uruguay 20 percent of the 15-year-olds do not attend the educational system, in Chile it is less than 10 percent.

The relevant data on institutional features are mainly derived from the school questionnaire. Data are presented by type of institution regarding provision/financing and country, so there are descriptive statistics from private schools in Chile and Uruguay, public schools in both countries, and private subsidized schools in Chile.

Table 5.4 presents the available information in PISA for each governance factor. Column 2 shows the variable name and column 3 the description or possible values. In addition to the raw variables, PISA constructs some indexes that intend to capture the influence of a global factor as a combination of some raw variables. As part of our work we analyzed the inclusion of PISA indexes and/or raw variables for some of these factors.

Additionally, the research uses primary data collected by the team as a result of conducting 67 in-depth interviews with teachers, principals, and key informants in both countries.

 
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