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  • 1. See, e.g., Hopken (1997), Stoyanov (1998), Zhelyazkova (1998).
  • 2. The leaders of the Bulgarian national movement largely used the term ‘Turkish Empire’ instead of ‘Ottoman Empire’, and consequently attributed to the Turks all the characteristic features with which the Ottomans had been depicted.
  • 3. A policy which was last applied against ethnic Turks in 1984-1989.
  • 4. By the time of the exodus the number of ethnic Turks in Bulgaria was estimated at about one million; more than one-third of them left the country in 1989.
  • 5. See, e.g., White (2004) and Hann and Beller-Hann (2001).


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