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Best practices for environmental health : environmental pollution, protection, quality and sustainab


PrefaceINTRODUCTIONHISTORY OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, SUSTAINABILITY, ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTHTHE PASTTHE MODERN ERANATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACTUS ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCYSUSTAINABILITYCURRENT ENVIRONMENTAL AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH CONCERNSHEALTHY PEOPLE 2020 AND THE FUTURE: FRAMEWORKPROFESSIONAL COMPETENCIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALSQualified WorkforceInternship ProgramTWO SIDES OF THE SAME COINUSE OF KNOWLEDGEBEST PRACTICESEvidence-Based Public Health PracticesPractical Approach to Best Practices Developed and Utilized by Experts in Their FieldsRESOURCESHOW TO MAKE IT WORKUNIQUE FEATURES OF THIS BOOKWHY THIS BOOK NOW?ENDNOTESBIBLIOGRAPHYNecessity for Effective Programming TechniquesAUTHOR'S THOUGHTSINTRODUCTIONMAJOR CONCERNS IN OUR SOCIETY TODAYFinancial StressRegulatory Reform in Environmental Health and Protection ProgramsEnvironmental JusticeOur Changing PlanetENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS AND THEIR INTERACTIONSEnvironmental CancerEMERGING AND RE-EMERGING INFECTIOUS AND ZOONOTIC DISEASESWHERE WE LIVE, WORK, PLAY, AND ARE EDUCATEDMOBILE, GROWING, AND AGING POPULATIONMobile and Growing PopulationAging PopulationSUSTAINABILITYHISTORY OF SUSTAINABILITY IN THE UNITED STATESLawsPresident's Council on Sustainable DevelopmentRecent Executive Orders Concerning Environmental SustainabilityHISTORY OF GLOBAL SUSTAINABILITYUnited NationsAgenda 21 Report, June 1992GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGEWorld Summit on Sustainable DevelopmentReport of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June 20-22, 2012 (See endnote 27)PROGRAMS WHICH ACHIEVE THE GOAL OF PREVENTING DISEASE AND INJURY AND PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENTThe Past How Programs Were StartedThe PresentCOMPONENTS OF SUCCESSFUL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, SAFETY, PROTECTION, AND SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAMSExample of a Successful Program: Community Rodent Control, Philadelphia, 1959-1963Statement of the ProblemSolutions to the ProblemStakeholdersThe Actual Program ContentFundingEvaluation and ResultsRedirectionSummaryCONCLUSIONENDNOTESBIBLIOGRAPHYAir Quality (Outdoor [Ambient] and Indoor)STATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND SPECIAL INFORMATION FOR OUTDOOR AIR QUALITYConstituents of Air Pollution GasesParticulate MatterLiquidsOrigins of Air PollutantsHealth EffectsEnvironmental EffectsTypes of Air Pollutants Criteria Air PollutantsStratospheric Ozone Layer DepletionCurrent StatusClimate ChangeMeasures of Air QualityStandards for Criteria PollutantsNational Air Toxics Assessments and Toxics Release InventoryOzone Action DayAir Quality IndexGeneral Best Practices for All Sources of Air PollutionPollution Prevention as Part of Best PracticesSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR AMBIENT AIR QUALITYCriteria PollutantsThe Six Criteria Air PollutantsOther Major Specific Sources of Air Pollution (Including Toxic Air Pollutants)Best Practices for the Chemical IndustryBest Practices for Controlled BurnsFrackingGlycol Dehydration UnitNatural Gas FlaringOil and Natural Gas Production FacilitiesSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR TOXIC AIR POLLUTIONSources of Toxic Air Pollutants Major Point SourcesArea and Other Sources (Smaller Sources)The Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework IndustryAccidental Chemical ReleasesAuto Body and Repair ShopsDrycleanersGas Stations and Gasoline Distribution FacilitiesHospital Medical and Infectious Waste IncineratorsLawnmowers and Other Garden EquipmentOff-Site Waste OperationsPrinting and PublishingShipyardsSmall Chemical PlantsSurface Coating and Painting of MaterialsWood Furniture ManufacturingSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR GREENHOUSE GASESElectricity Production and TransmissionMobileIndustriesCommercial and ResidentialAgricultureINDOOR AIR QUALITYHealth EffectsSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR INDOOR AIR QUALITYBest Practices for Biological ContaminantsBest Practices for CarpetsBest Practices for Environmental Tobacco SmokeBest Practices for FormaldehydeBest Practices for Household ProductsBest Practices for LeadBest Practices for Nitrogen Dioxide (See this topic in Outdoor Air Pollution above)Best Practices for Pesticides and Disinfectant ResiduesBest Practices for Radon GasLAWS, RULES, AND REGULATIONSClean Air Act and the EconomyRetrospective Study, 1970-1990Prospective Study, 1990-2020RESOURCESSUCCESSFUL PROGRAMSGlobal Methane InitiativePortland, Oregon, Air Toxics SolutionsENDNOTESBIBLIOGRAPHYBuilt Environment- Healthy Homes and Healthy CommunitiesSTATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND SPECIAL INFORMATIONSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT IN URBAN AREASHistory of the Built Environment and Housing in the United StatesPoverty and HomelessnessSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT IN URBAN AREASSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT IN SUBURBAN AREASSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT IN RURAL AREASRural Areas with Poverty, Lack of Resources, and JobsSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT FOR HOUSINGSite and GroundsSubstandard HousingBasic SanitationBest Practices to Resolve Impairment in HousingTemperature ExtremesBest Practices for Protecting People during Temperature ExtremesSPECIFIC ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMSAir PollutionAsbestos (See endnote 36)Brownfield SitesBest Practices in Reusing Brownfield SitesChromated Copper ArsenicCombustion PollutantsDrywall (from China)Best Practices for Drywall from ChinaEmergencies and DisastersEnvironmental InjuriesFood Protection(See endnote 38)Best Practices for Eliminating FormaldehydeHazardous Household WasteBest Practices in Disposal of Hazardous Household WasteIndoor Air PollutionInsects and RodentsBest Practices in Preventing Lead PoisoningOn-Site Sewage DisposalOn-Site Water SourcePoisoningSolid Waste DisposalLAWS, RULES, AND REGULATIONSZoning OrdinancesBuilding and Housing CodesSPECIAL RESOURCESSUCCESSFUL PROGRAMSDublin, Ohio, and the Bridge Street CorridorAurora Corridor, Shoreline, WashingtonBelmar, Lakewood, ColoradoCity Centre, Houston, TexasIndianapolis, IndianaWorchester, MassachusettsGreenville, South CarolinaBaltimore, Maryland, Housing AuthorityENDNOTESBIBLIOGRAPHYChildren's Environmental Health IssuesSTATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND SPECIAL INFORMATIONUNIQUENESS AND STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD AFFECTED BY ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSESPreconceptionPlacentaFetusEarly Childhood (0-2 Years)Young Child (2-6 Years)Younger School-Aged Child (6-12 Years)Adolescent (12-18 Years)Special Circumstances and Risk FactorsSOCIETAL RISKThe EconomyHomelessnessHungerPovertyPoor Medical CareLanguage BarriersClimate ChangeECONOMIC EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTSSPECIAL PROBLEMS OF WHERE WE RESIDE AND RISK FACTORSUrban EnvironmentSuburban EnvironmentAgricultural EnvironmentFACTORS LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES TO REDUCE HAZARDS FOR SPECIAL ENVIRONMENTSHome EnvironmentFACTORS LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR CHILDHOOD ASTHMABest Practices for Preventing Childhood AsthmaFACTORS LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR SCHOOLSPreschool EnvironmentSchool EnvironmentBest Practices for Indoor Air QualityCooling and Ventilation SystemsDrinking WaterPlumbing SystemFume Hoods/Spray BoothsElectrical ShopKey Potential Violation Areas in SchoolsFACTORS LEADING TO ILLNESS AND INJURIES AND BEST PRACTICES FOR THE RECREATIONAL ENVIRONMENT FOR CHILDRENFACTORS LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR THE OCCUPATIONAL ENVIRONMENTFACTORS LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES TO REDUCE HAZARDS FOR SPECIFIC COMMUNITY AND HOME ENVIRONMENTAL RISKSToxic ChemicalsChemical and Biological Releases Including TerrorismFACTORS LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR CHILDHOOD LEAD POISONINGChildhood PoisoningEnvironmental (Secondhand) Tobacco SmokeFoodIndoor Air PollutionInjuriesMethamphetamine-Contaminated HousesConsumption of Unpasteurized MilkSoilSolid and Hazardous Waste DisposalUnsafe Drinking WaterBest Practices for Protecting Drinking Water SuppliesVectors of DiseaseFACTORS LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR EMERGENCY ENVIRONMENTAL RISKSFloods, Tornadoes, and HurricanesExtreme HeatAftermath of WildfiresBest Practices for Aftermath of WildfiresLACK OF CONSISTENT APPROACH TO CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH ISSUESInadequate Training of Professionals in Children's Environmental Health IssuesPediatriciansNursesRegistered Environmental Health Specialists/Registered SanitariansEnvironmental Health AidesCRITIQUES OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH EFFORTSGovernment Accountability OfficeLAWS, RULES, AND REGULATIONSSPECIAL RESOURCESChildren's Environmental Health CentersColumbia University School of Public HealthDuke UniversityJohns Hopkins University Schools of Medicine and Public HealthMount Sinai School of MedicineUniversity of California, BerkeleyUniversity of California DavisUniversity of Southern California and University of California, Los AngelesUniversity of CincinnatiHarvard School of Public HealthUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUniversity of IowaUniversity of Medicine and Dentistry of New JerseyUniversity of MichiganUniversity of WashingtonNational Institute of Environmental Health SciencesOTHER RESOURCESGovernmental WorldFourth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health (See endnote 30)Fifth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health (See endnote 60)World Health Organization Environmental Health ActivitiesFederalAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease RegistryAmerica's Children and the EnvironmentAssociation of Maternal and Child Health ProgramsConsumer Product Safety CommissionEPA's Children's Health Protection WebsiteEPA's Healthy School Environment ResourcesNational Library of Medicine Environmental Health and ToxicologyNational Center for Environmental HealthNational Environmental Education FoundationNational Institute for Occupational Safety and HealthOther OrganizationsState and LocalImproving Kids Environment (IKE)Michigan Network for Children's Environmental HealthProfessional Associations and Other Organizations American Academy of Pediatrics Council on Environmental HealthAmerican Public Health Association—Public Health Nursing SectionCanadian Association of Physicians for the EnvironmentCanadian Partnership for Children's Health and EnvironmentChildren's Environmental Health NetworkHealthy Schools NetworkNational Association of City and County Health OfficialsNational Association of School NursesNational Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and SafetyNational Environmental Health Association—Children's Environmental Health Technical SectionNational Safety Council—Environmental Health CenterNatural Resources Defense Council, Children's Environmental Health InitiativeThe Coalition to End Childhood Lead PoisoningThe Collaborative on Health and the EnvironmentPediatric Environmental Health Specialty UnitsPROGRAMSState and Local Level State ProgramsLocal ProgramsOTHER PROGRAMSAgricultural Environment Migrant Clinicians NetworkUrban Environment Community-based Intervention Research Project—University of MichiganHealthy Homes Project Pilot, BaltimoreHealthy Children, Healthy Homes—North Miami, FloridaEPA Rules on Contractors Making RenovationsIntegrated Pest ManagementLead PoisoningPreschool Environment Children's Environmental Health NetworkEnvironmental Protection AgencyCanadian Partnership for Children's Health and EnvironmentSchool EnvironmentProposed Children's Environmental Health Program General IssuesHomes and CommunitiesIndoor Air Quality Program for SchoolsUrban SchoolsSite Assessment for Schools and PreschoolsChemicalsInjury Control ProgramsSchool Environmental Health and Safety Inspection ProgramENDNOTESBIBLIOGRAPHYEnvironmental Health Emergencies, Disasters, and TerrorismSTATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND SPECIAL INFORMATIONSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND PROTECTION EMERGENCIES, DISASTERS, AND SPECIAL ISSUESPrevention, Control, and Mitigation of Injuries and Illness while Protecting the EnvironmentTopic Areas Air Quality (Outdoor and Indoor)AsbestosBest Practices for DebrisDrinking Water (On-Site Water Supply and Public Water Supply)Electrical Systems and AppliancesHousehold Items and Clothing Potentially Contaminated with Flood WatersInsects and RodentsLead-Based PaintSeptic Tank Systems and Public Wastewater SystemsSheltersBest Practices for SheltersSolid and Hazardous Waste RemovalBest Practices for Solid and Hazardous Waste RemovalStructural SafetyUnderground Storage TanksSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR NATURAL AND WEATHER-RELATED DISASTERSIncidents of Natural Disasters and Weather-Related Impairment DroughtBest Practices Related to DroughtEarthquakesBest Practices Related to EarthquakesExtreme Temperatures (Heat and Cold)Heat StressCold StressFloodsBest Practices for FloodsLandslides and MudslidesBest Practices for Landslides and MudslidesTsunamisBest Practices for TsunamisVolcanoesBest Practices for VolcanoesWildfiresBest Practices for WildfiresWind-Related Storms (Tropical Storms, Hurricanes, Tornadoes, Severe Winter Storms, etc.)SUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR TERRORISMBioterrorismBest Practices for BioterrorismChemical TerrorismBest Practices for Radiological TerrorismExplosivesBest Practices for Explosives TerrorismFood TerrorismBest Practices for Food TerrorismWater TerrorismDISASTER SITE MANAGEMENT, COMMAND-AND-CONTROL PROBLEMS FOR EMERGENCY, AND OTHER PERSONNEL, SUPPLIES, EQUIPMENT, AND ENFORCEMENTOCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY PRACTICES FOR PERSONNEL INVOLVED IN EMERGENCY/DISASTER CLEANUPS AND REPAIRSOCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY PRACTICES FOR FIRST RESPONDERS, CONSTRUCTION WORKERS, AND VOLUNTEERSLAWS, RULES, AND REGULATIONSProposed Rule—Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Emergency Preparedness Requirements for Medicare- and Medicaid-Participating Providers and SuppliersRESOURCESPROGRAMSCity of Los Angeles Hazard Mitigation PlanState of California Multi-Hazard Mitigation PlanState of New York Comprehensive Emergency Management and Continuity of Operations PlanFederal Emergency Management Agency Comprehensive Preparedness Guide on Developing and Maintaining Emergency Operations PlansFederal Emergency Management AgencyThe Office of Public Health Preparedness and ResponseTexas Colorado River Floodplain Coalition Multi-Jurisdictional Hazard Mitigation Plan Update 2011-2016Public Health Emergency Response GuideCenters for Disease Control and Prevention—Bioterrorism Response DocumentsRadiological Emergency Response-Related LinksCenters for Disease Control and Prevention Health Alert Network (HAN)Interim Planning Guide for State and Local Governments for Managing Terrorist IncidentsFederal Communications Commission's Emergency Communications GuideENDNOTESBIBLIOGRAPHYEnvironmental and Occupational Injury ControlSTATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND SPECIAL INFORMATIONUnintentional InjuriesSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT (HOME AND COMMUNITY)Best Practices for Preventing FallsBest Practices for Preventing Built Environment PoisoningsBest Practices to Prevent FiresBest Practices to Prevent Dog BitesSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR HOSPITALS AND OTHER HEALTHCARE ENVIRONMENTSSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR TRANSPORTATIONSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR SCHOOL FACILITIES AND PEOPLESUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR SPORTS AND RECREATION FACILITIES AND PEOPLESUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR OCCUPATIONAL FACILITIES AND PEOPLESUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR VIOLENCE-RELATED INJURIES (INTENTIONAL INJURIES)LAWS, RULES, AND REGULATIONSRESOURCESPROGRAMSNational Action Plan for Child Injury Prevention—Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and ControlOccupational Health Surveillance Program—New York Department of HealthWorkplace Injury and Illness Prevention Program—California OSHAENDNOTESBIBLIOGRAPHYFood Security and ProtectionSTATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND SPECIAL INFORMATIONBEST PRACTICES IN CONTROLLING TIME/TEMPERATURE EVENTS AND OTHER FOOD PROBLEMS THROUGH THE USE OF HAZARD ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS (HACCP) PRINCIPLESDETERMINING THE SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM AND SPECIFIC BEST PRACTICES THROUGH USE OF THE SYSTEMS (PROCESS) APPROACHSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR PRODUCTION OF FOODProcessing of Food Bottled WaterBest Practices in Processing of EggsFish and ShellfishFruits, Vegetables, Juice, and NutsGrains, Soybeans, and HayBest Practices in Processing of Grains, Soybeans, and HayMeatMilk and DairyBest Practices in Processing Milk and DairyPoultrySUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR PACKING OF FOODBest Practices in Packaging of FoodSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR TRANSPORTATION OF FOODBest Practices in Transportation of FoodSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR STORAGE OF FOODSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR PREPARATION OF FOODTYPES OF PROCESSES AND METHODS OF INTERVENTIONInterventionsUSE OF SYSTEMS APPROACH WITH CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS TO PREVENT AND MITIGATE POTENTIAL FOODBORNE DISEASEUSE OF THE REGULATORY PROCESS TO PREVENT AND MITIGATE POTENTIAL FOODBORNE DISEASEUSE OF VERIFICATION OF SAFETY STANDARDS FOR IMPORTED FOOD TO PREVENT AND MITIGATE POTENTIAL FOODBORNE DISEASEFUNCTION OF INDUSTRY IN THE PREVENTION AND MITIGATION OF POTENTIAL FOODBORNE DISEASEFUNCTION OF PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS IN THE PREVENTION AND MITIGATION OF POTENTIAL FOODBORNE DISEASEBest Practices for Professional AssociationsTHE PROBLEMS RELATED TO ADEQUATE PERSONNEL AND BUDGETS TO PREVENT AND MITIGATE FOODBORNE DISEASETHE PROBLEMS RELATED TO POLITICS IN THE PREVENTION AND MITIGATION OF FOODBORNE DISEASETHE NEED FOR TRAINING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALSA GLOBAL RESPONSE IN THE PREVENTION AND MITIGATION OF FOODBORNE DISEASELAWS, RULES, AND REGULATIONSFood CodesThe FDA Food CodeFDA Food Safety Modernization ActEgg Products Inspection ActPoultry Products Inspection ActFederal Meat Inspection ActOther Significant Regulations and LawsRESOURCESGovernmental Federal LevelUS Department of AgricultureUS Department of Health and Human ServicesUS Department of DefenseUS Department of Homeland SecurityUS Environmental Protection AgencyEnvironmental Health Specialist NetworkCDC's OutbreakNetFoodborne Diseases Active Surveillance NetworkPulseNetGovernmental ManualsOther ResourcesETP Food Protection-EHS-CDCIndustries, Industry Associations, Professional Associations, and Professional Journals Council to Improve Foodborne Outbreak ResponseProfessional Associations—Non-GovernmentalProfessional Journals Peer-Reviewed JournalsJournal of Environmental HealthEducational ProceduresPresidents and Food SafetyUEP "5-Star" Egg Safety ProgramColumbus Public Health (Ohio) Food Protection Program 2009Similarities and Differences between Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Columbus, Ohio, Food Protection ProgramsENDNOTESBIBLIOGRAPHYHealthcare Environment and Infection ControlSTATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND SPECIAL INFORMATION FOR HOSPITALSSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR ACUTE CARE HOSPITALSHealthcare-Associated InfectionsEMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES AS A SOURCE FOR HEALTHCARE-ASSOCIATED INFECTIONSHEALTHCARE-ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS CAUSED BY MEDICAL/NURSING TECHNIQUESBest Practices for Preventing Healthcare-Associated Infections Caused by Medical/NursingHEALTHCARE-ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS CAUSED BY ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS INTERNAL TO THE FACILITYBuilding Construction or RenovationAi r and Airborne InfectionsBest Practices for Preventing Airborne InfectionsEquipment (Medical and Surgical)General Best Practices for Cleaning and Disinfecting Medical and Surgical Instruments and EquipmentFoodHand WashingInsect and Rodent ControlBest Practices for Insect and Rodent ControlMedical Waste and Other Hazardous Substances Including Cleaning MaterialsBest Practices to Reduce NoiseBest Practices in Reducing Microorganisms on SurfacesBest Practices in Water ProblemsSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR EMPLOYEE AND PATIENT SAFETY (OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY)Patient SafetyEmployee Safety (Occupational Health and Safety)Best Practices in Employee Safety (See Best Practices in Patient Safety above)SUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR POTENTIAL HAZARDS EXTERNAL TO THE FACILITYAir PollutionHazardous WasteWater PollutionBest Practices in Water PollutionBest Practices in External Pollution PreventionSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR EMERGING AND RE-EMERGING DISEASESSpecial Highly Infectious Pathogenic OrganismsSpecial Problems Related to Some of the Emerging Pathogens and Best PracticesAntibiotic-Resistant BacteriaClostridium difficileRespiratory and Enteric Viruses in Pediatric Care SettingsSevere Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) VirusEbola VirusTuberculosisSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR BIOTERRORISM AND POTENTIAL AGENTSCategory A MicroorganismsBest Practices in Preventing BotulismSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR USE OF MAIL AS A MEANS OF DISPERSING BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS AND OTHER POTENTIAL THREATSBest Practices for Mail Screening and Handling ProcessesSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR TOXICOLOGICAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, AND OCCUPATIONAL CONCERNS FOR CLEANING MATERIALS AND DISINFECTANTSSTATEMENT OF PROBLEMS AND SPECIAL INFORMATION FOR OTHER HEALTHCARE OPTIONSSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR HOME HEALTHCARESUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR PHYSICIANS' OFFICES AND MEDICAL CLINICSSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR STAND-ALONE SURGICAL UNITSSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIESOccupational Safety and Health ProblemsLAWS, RULES, AND REGULATIONSNeedlestick Safety and Prevention ActClean Water ActSafe Water Drinking ActResource Conservation and Recovery ActEmergency Planning and Community Right to Know ActMedical Waste Tracking ActClean Air ActToxic Substances Control ActFederal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide ActFederal Hazardous Materials Transportation LawNuclear Regulatory CommissionOccupational Safety and Health AdministrationRESOURCESAgency for Healthcare Research and Quality, US Department of Health and Human ServicesCenters for Disease Control and PreventionPROGRAMSSuccessful Hospital Health and Safety ProgramsUniversity Medical Center at Brackenridge, Austin, TexasSt. Thomas Midtown Hospital, Nashville, TennesseeBlake Medical Center, Bradenton, FloridaLima Memorial Health System, Lima, OhioSt. Vincent's Medical Center, Bridgeport, ConnecticutCincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, OhioTampa General Hospital, Tampa, FloridaWashington State Department of Social and Health Services, Olympia, WashingtonENDNOTESBIBLIOGRAPHYInsect Control, Rodent Control, and PesticidesSTATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND SPECIAL INFORMATIONSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR INSECTS AND OTHER ARTHROPODSBest Practices in Fly ControlFood Product InsectsBest Practices in Control of MitesSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR RODENTSSTATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND SPECIAL INFORMATION FOR PESTICIDES AND ANTIMICROBIALSSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR PESTICIDES AND ANTIMICROBIALSSTATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND SPECIAL INFORMATION FOR INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENTLAWS, RULES, AND REGULATIONSFederal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide ActFederal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic ActFood Quality Protection Act of 1996Pesticide Registration Improvement Act of 2003Freedom of Information ActFederal Advisory Committee ActSafe Drinking Water ActRESOURCESUS Environmental Protection Agency Integrated Pest Management in BuildingsPesticide Fact SheetsNational Pesticide Information CenterUS Department of Agriculture EXTOXNETPesticide Data ProgramPROGRAMSNational Pesticide ProgramEndocrine Disruptor Screening ProgramCity of Berkeley, California, Rat Control ProgramCalifornia Mosquito Control ProgramsCity of Columbus Public Health Division of Environmental Health—Mosquito Control ProgramENDNOTESBIBLIOGRAPHYRecreational Environment and Swimming AreasSTATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND SPECIAL INFORMATIONSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR AIRLINE TRANSPORTATIONOccupational Health and Safety ConcernsEnvironmental ConcernsAir Pollutants Released by AircraftSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR CRUISE SHIPSHealth Risks Food and Waterborne DiseasesRespiratory Infections, Rubella, and TuberculosisMosquito-Borne DiseasesSafety RisksBest Practices to Avoid and Mitigate Safety RisksEnvironmental ConcernsBest Practices for Improving Air QualityChild Activity CentersHand Washing and Toilet FacilitiesHeating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, Fountains, Misting Systems, Humidifiers, and ShowersIntegrated Pest ManagementLiquid Waste (Gray Water) DisposalMedical FacilitiesOily Bilge WaterPlumbing and Cross-ConnectionsBest Practices for Prevention of Backflow and BacksiphonagePotable WaterRecreational Water Facilities On Board the ShipBest Practices for Recreational Water Facilities Onboard ShipBest Practices for Solid Waste Storage and DisposalSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY PROBLEMS ON BOARD SHIP AND IN PORTSSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR CHILDREN'S CAMPSSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR RECREATIONAL SWIMMING AREASDisease OutbreaksPhysical Problems Leading to InjuriesChemical HazardsAesthetic ProblemsSwimming Pool Codes and InspectionsRULES AND REGULATIONSPublic Health Service Act of 1944 with Amendments and Executive Orders Updated to January 4, 2012Cruise Vessel Security and Safety Act of 2010International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL)Act to Prevent Pollution from ShipsClean Water Actdischarge of a pollutant does occur.Resource Conservation and Recovery ActComprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability ActMarine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (Ocean Dumping Act)Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety ActCoast Guard RegulationsRESOURCESCDC's Traveler's HealthNational Center for Environmental Health's Division of Emergency and Environmental Health ServicesUnited States Coast GuardUnited States Coast Guard Cruise Ship National Center of ExpertiseWorld Health Organization Global Outbreak Alert and Response NetworkPublic Health Agency of Canada Global Public Health Intelligence NetworkILO Maritime Labor Convention and Its Guidance Concerning Health and Safety On-Board ShipsModel Aquatic Health CodePROGRAMSCDC Vessel Sanitation Program 2011 Operations ManualCDC Vessel Sanitation Program 2011 Construction GuidelinesUnited States Coast Guard Cruise Ship National Center of ExpertiseInteragency Marine Debris Coordinating CommitteeENDNOTESBIBLIOGRAPHYSewage Disposal SystemsSTATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND SPECIAL INFORMATION FOR SEWAGEPollutants Found in SewageSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR PUBLIC SEWAGE SYSTEMSInfiltration and InflowSewer LateralsCollection SystemsAncillary Structures Including Pump/Lift StationsDrop ShaftValve, Diversion, and Overflow StructuresManholesBest Practices in Repairing Ancillary Structures Pump/Lift StationDrop ShaftsValve, Diversion, and Overflow StructuresManholesBest Practices in Use of Combined SewersSewer Cleaning and InspectionBest Practices for Sewer Inspection and CleaningPrimary TreatmentSecondary TreatmentAdvanced Wastewater Treatment (Tertiary Treatment)Land Treatment of WastewaterWetlandsConstructed Free Water Surface WetlandsSubsurface FlowDisposal of Biosolids and Other Wastewater ResidualsSeptage Treatment/Disposal: Land ApplicationWet Weather Concerns at Combined Sewer Wastewater Treatment FacilitiesBest Practices for Wet Weather Concerns at Combined Sewer Wastewater Treatment FacilitiesFlooding a Severe Danger to Water and Wastewater Treatment FacilitiesPackage Treatment PlantsBest Practices in Use of Package Treatment PlantsChlorineChlorine DioxideOzonationUltraviolet RadiationUse of Energy in Water and Wastewater Treatment PlantsSTATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND SPECIAL INFORMATION FOR PRIVATE SEWAGE SYSTEMS (ON-SITE SEWAGE DISPOSAL)A Survey of Household Sewage Treatment System Failures in OhioSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR PRIVATE SEWAGE SYSTEMS (ON-SITE SEWAGE DISPOSAL)Size and Nature of Land for HousesSoils and Soil TestingSoil TestsOn-Site Wastewater Systems Septic Tanks and Distribution BoxesSeptic Tank Systems for Large Flow ApplicationsSeptic Tank Effluents, Treatment, and Disposal SystemsSeepage PitsSand Filters (See endnote 9)Alternate Filter MaterialMound SystemsBest Practices for Mound SystemsOther Advanced Treatment SystemsFixed Film MethodRotating Biological Contractor SystemsSuspended Growth MethodActivated Sludge TechnologyMembrane Bioreactor MethodLow Pressure Pipe Systems (See endnote 29)Small-Diameter Gravity Sewers (See endnote 30)Disinfection for Small Systems (See endnote 26)Special Toilets to Reduce Water Flow High-Efficiency ToiletsIncineration ToiletsComposting ToiletsPersonal Habits in Use of Water and the Disposal of WasteBest Practices in Use of Water and the Disposal of WasteHolding TanksLAWS, RULES, AND REGULATIONSStormwater Phase II Final RulePlanning a New or Expansion of a Wastewater Treatment PlantRESOURCESPROGRAMSENDNOTESBIBLIOGRAPHYSolid Waste, Hazardous Materials, and Hazardous Waste ManagementSTATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND SPECIAL INFORMATION FOR SOLID WASTESUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR SOLID WASTE COLLECTION, STORAGE, AND TRANSPORTATIONNon-hazardous Solid Waste StreamsMunicipal Solid WasteBest Practices in Collection Systems for Solid WasteTransfer Stations (See endnote 12)Best Practices for Transfer StationsAgricultural and Animal WastesIndustrial WastesConstruction and Demolition WastesSewage Treatment WastesSpecial WastesCement Kiln Dust WasteCrude Oil, Coal, and Natural Gas WasteMineral Processing WasteMining WasteMedical WasteSource Reduction/Waste MinimizationRecyclingBest Practices in Recycling (See endnote 14)SUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FOR MUNICIPAL LANDFILLSBest Practices for Construction and Demolition Waste LandfillsSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL USING MUNICIPAL INCINERATORSBest Practices in Disposal of Solid Waste in IncineratorsSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL USING COMPOSTINGBest Practices in CompostingSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR NON-HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL AND HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL USING UNDERGROUND INJECTION WELLSDescription of Underground Injection Wells Class I Underground Injection WellsBest Practices for Class I Underground Injection WellsClass II Underground Injection WellsSeismic Activity Caused by Humans (Induced Seismicity)Best Practices to Prevent or Mitigate Seismic Activity Caused by HumansClass III Underground Injection WellsBest Practices for Class III Underground Injection WellsClass IV Underground Injection WellsClass V Underground Injection WellsClass VI Underground Injection WellsBest Practices for Class VI Underground Injection WellsIn Situ Bioremediation of GroundwaterGeneral Best Practices for Underground Injection WellsSTATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND SPECIAL INFORMATION FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALSSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR PRODUCTION OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALSBasic ChemicalsSpecialty ChemicalsBest Practices in Control of Production and Use of Specialty ChemicalsAgricultural ChemicalsBest Practices in Control of Production and Use of Agricultural ChemicalsPharmaceuticalsConsumer ProductsOther Concerns about Chemical Plants NoiseBest Practices to Mitigate NoiseSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS USE, COLLECTION, STORAGE, AND TRANSPORTATIONSTATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND SPECIAL INFORMATION FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSALSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR HOUSEHOLD HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENTSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR SCHOOL HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENTSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR MEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENTBest Practices for Disposal of Medical WasteLow-Level Radioactive WasteSTATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND SPECIAL INFORMATION FOR LINERS FOR NEW SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS AND LANDFILLSSTATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND SPECIAL INFORMATION FOR LEACHATE COLLECTION SYSTEMSSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE TANK SYSTEMSBest Practices for Hazardous Waste Tank SystemsSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS USED FOR MANAGING HAZARDOUS WASTESSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTESSTATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND SPECIAL INFORMATION FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLSSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLSBest Practices for Hazardous Waste LandfillsSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORSSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND HAZARDOUS WASTEBest Practices to Prevent or Mitigate Air Quality ProblemsSTATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND SPECIAL INFORMATION FOR OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETYSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ISSUESLAWS, RULES, AND REGULATIONSNational Environmental Policy ActResource Conservation and Recovery ActComprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability ActOil Pollution ActSuperfund Amendments and Reauthorization ActEmergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know ActHazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act of 1990Clean Water ActClean Air ActSafe Drinking Water ActToxic Substances Control Act (See endnote 134)Migratory Bird Treaty ActFederal Hazardous Substances ActFish and Wildlife Coordination ActFederal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide ActEndangered Species ActRobert T Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance ActRESOURCESPROGRAMSPlanning and OperationHazard AssessmentTrainingMedical ProgramEvaluationIntegrated Solid Waste ManagementUS Program on Recycling of TiresBattery Recycling ProgramModel Solid Waste Management ProgramWaste Management in the Oil and Gas Exploration and Production ProcessENDNOTESBIBLIOGRAPHYWater Systems (Drinking J Water Quality)STATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND SPECIAL INFORMATIONSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR GENERAL AND SPECIFIC SOURCES OF WATER CONTAMINATION, PREVENTION, MITIGATION, AND CONTROLSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR PRIVATE DRINKING WATER SYSTEMSSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR PUBLIC DRINKING WATER SUPPLIESLivestock and Poultry Manure Contaminants and Raw Water QualityBest Practices in Managing Livestock and Poultry Manure Contaminants to Avoid Raw WaterSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR PUBLIC DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PLANTSLocation, Source, and Preliminary Pretreatment for Raw WaterNitrificationDrinking Water Treatment FacilityCryptosporidiumCyanotoxinsTurbidityDisinfectantsDisinfectant ByproductsNitrificationNational Primary Drinking Water RegulationsFinished Potable Water Storage FacilitiesBest Practices for Finished Potable Water Storage FacilitiesSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR PUBLIC DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMSEffects of Age of Water (See endnote 30)Deteriorating Buried InfrastructurePermeation and LeachingNew or Repaired Water Mains (See endnote 33)Service LinesHealth Risks Associated with Pressure Transients in Water Distribution SystemsHealth Risks Related to Microbial Growth and Biofilms in Water Distribution SystemsSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR CROSS-CONNECTIONS AND SUBMERGED INLETSLAWS, RULES, AND REGULATIONSSafe Drinking Water ActClean Water ActRESOURCESPROGRAMSFederal Support for State and Local Response Operations in Water Contamination CrisesJoaquin River DeltaCyanotoxin Management PlanTexas Commission on Environmental Quality—Public Water Supply Supervision ProgramENDNOTESBIBLIOGRAPHYWater Quality and Water PollutionSTATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND SPECIAL INFORMATIONSUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR POTENTIAL SOURCES OF WATER CONTAMINATIONAcid Mine DrainageBest Practices for AestheticsAir Pollution DepositsBest Practices for Alteration of Habitats (See endnote 6)Climate ChangeBest Practices for ErosionExtraction of ResourcesGovernmental AgenciesBest Practices for Governmental AgenciesIllicit DischargesImproper Disposal of Hazardous WasteBest Practices for Land Development and Building ConstructionOxygen-Demanding SubstancesSeptic SystemsBest Practices for Total Suspended SolidsWaste from PetsLAWS, RULES, AND REGULATIONSFederal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act)RESOURCESPROGRAMSENDNOTESBIBLIOGRAPHY
 
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