Home Health Best practices for environmental health : environmental pollution, protection, quality and sustainability
(See endnotes 24, 25, 29)
The CDC estimates on a yearly basis 2 million illnesses and 23,000 deaths are caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the United States. There has been a huge overuse of antibiotics and misuse of antibiotics both in the healthcare fields and in food production. Outbreaks of disease- causing organisms resistant to antibiotics include carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and particularly Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (See endnote 27), and C. difficile which is resistant to many drugs. Also vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRI), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and S. aureus with intermediate levels of resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics are serious concerns in the spread of hospital-acquired infections. This is especially important in intensive care units and other areas where patients may be immunocompromised.
People are the primary reservoir of the organisms even though they may be found on various types of equipment that come in contact with the patient, floors, frequent touch surfaces, and in hydrotherapy tanks which are of special concern for burn victims. Contamination of the surfaces increases substantially when patients have diarrhea and when there is improper removal and cleaning up of the fecal contamination. Misuse of gloves by healthcare workers can spread the microorganisms to the various surfaces. Also these organisms can be easily spread from patient to patient, from patient to healthcare worker to their families and back to patients and to others who come into direct or indirect contact with the individuals or especially their hands. The organisms can persist on surfaces for periods lasting from a week up to several months. They can persist on the hands or gloves of healthcare workers for up to 60 minutes.
Best Practices for Preventing the Spread of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria
|< Prev||CONTENTS||Next >|