This is an atypical pneumonia of unknown etiology which came out of Asia 2002 and caused severe viral upper respiratory infections. It is found at very frequent levels in the respiratory secretions, feces, and blood of infected people. It is spread by infected droplets in the air and person-to-person contact. Any aerosol producing procedures such as intubation, broncoscopy, and sputum production may contaminate surfaces.
Best Practices for Control of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
• Follow Best Practices for Control of Respiratory and Enteric Viruses.
Ebola virus is transmitted by direct contact with blood or body fluids such as urine, feces, and vomit or by exposure to objects such as needles and bloody gloves that have become contaminated. The virus is highly infectious and can live on solid surfaces for several days.
Best Practices for Control of the Ebola Virus (See endnotes 22, 58)
• All staff members including housekeeping staff must wear appropriate personal protective equipment to avoid direct skin and mucous membrane contact with Ebola virus. (See the latest guidelines from CDC on the use of personal protective equipment by healthcare workers in endnote 21.)
• All housekeeping personnel must go through intensive training in putting on and taking off personal protective equipment when cleaning and disinfecting areas where Ebola patients have been treated. A highly skilled housekeeping supervisor must supervise not only the use of the personal protective equipment but also the cleanup and disinfecting process as well as the proper disposal of all equipment and fluids.
• All other personnel must follow the strict CDC guidelines for treatment of Ebola patients or suspected Ebola patients.
• If heavy-duty gloves are used for cleaning and disinfecting purposes, they should be disinfected after use and kept in the room or attachment to the room and then disposed of as highly infectious waste in an appropriate manner when the patient is either discharged or dies.
• Use a US EPA registered hospital disinfectant which is approved for non-enveloped viruses.
• Thoroughly clean all surfaces, especially frequent contact surfaces, and remove all visible soil before disinfecting the area. In the event of a large spill, neutralize the material with a very potent disinfectant and remove it before cleaning and disinfecting the area.
• Remove all single use equipment including food-service, linens, etc. and place in an impermeable waste bag in a rigid container marked as highly infectious before removing to processing and then final disposal of the contents.
• Use only mattresses and pillows which are impervious to fluids.
• Do not use carpeted rooms for Ebola patients and remove all unnecessary furniture.
• Discard all linens, non-permeable pillows or mattresses, privacy curtains, other cloth materials, dressings, portable toilets, emesis pans, etc. which have come in contact with the patient as highly infectious waste.
• Clean at least daily and possibly more frequently the area in which clothing changes occur and personal protective equipment is put on. The individual conducting the cleaning must be wearing clean fresh personal protective equipment and after finishing the various tasks dispose of them in an appropriate manner as determined by the CDC.