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Sewage Treatment Wastes

Sewage treatment wastes consist of sewage sludge in liquid, semi-solid, or solid form.

Disposal of sludge in either landfills or through incineration typically would not be cost-effective, and it may be problematic because of various environmental rules and regulations. (See Chapter 11, “Sewage Disposal Systems.”)

Special Wastes

(See endnote 28 plus attachments accessible through the US EPA Special Wastes (A category established by the US EPA) as noted in endnote 28)

Special waste consists of materials from cement kilns, mining, oil and gas drilling, combustion on a commercial basis, and air pollution control residues, etc. This is a category established by Congress for certain wastes generated in large volumes and believed to have less risk for human health and the environment than hazardous waste. The EPA had to do in-depth studies of each of these wastes to determine if there were hazards and issue a formal report to Congress of its findings. The EPA then had to issue a new final regulatory determination within 6 months on whether the special waste should be regulated as a hazardous waste. (See endnote 28 and its attachments for each of the special wastes.)

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