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Best Practices for Class I Underground Injection Wells

  • • Requires a permit prior to construction from the proper authorizing agency including information on casing and cementing, financial assurances, maximum operating pressure to avoid causing or increasing fractures that would allow the fluids to enter the underground safe drinking water supply, monitoring and reporting requirements, demonstration of mechanical integrity, pressure test when the system has been disturbed, and plans for plugging and abandonment of the well.
  • • All plugs for the well must be made of concrete.
  • • The area of review for non-hazardous injection wells is a minimum of 0.25 mile while that for hazardous waste injection wells is 2 miles.
  • • Do not inject substances between the outermost casing and the well bore.
  • • Casing in all hazardous waste injection wells must be cemented at the surface and extend from the surface through the underground safe drinking water supply.
  • • Mechanical integrity must be tested before the well goes into operation by using pressure tests, temperature variations, oxygen activation, or noise logs. Annually, a radioactive tracer survey must be conducted to show the integrity of the bottom of the well cement.
  • • There must be continuous monitoring of annulus pressure, injection pressure, flow rate, and volume of substances.
  • • Provide a hazardous waste injection well-written waste analysis plan.
  • • Use groundwater monitoring wells to make sure that the waste is not entering the groundwater supply.
  • • Maintain accurate logs of all actions and incidents and report problems to the US EPA.
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