SUB-PROBLEMS INCLUDING LEADING TO IMPAIRMENT AND BEST PRACTICES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND HAZARDOUS WASTE
(See endnote 2)
(also see Chapter 2, “Air Quality (Outdoor [Ambient] and Indoor)”)
The basic information on air quality, health effects, National Ambient Air Quality Standards, New Source Performance Standards, and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants have already been discussed in Chapter 2, “Air Quality (Outdoor [Ambient] and Indoor).” Regulations have been established for hazardous waste airborne emissions, municipal solid waste landfill airborne emissions, and offsite waste and recovery operations. There are different operating permits based on the amount of emissions from the unit.
A Title V permit, issued under the Clean Air Act regulations, is required for actual or potential major sources of emission that either meet or exceed the major source threshold for their own location. The threshold is typically 100 tons per year unless the waste incineration unit is located in a non-attainment area for pollutants and then it may be lower. The threshold for hazardous air pollutants is 10 tons per year for a given pollutant and 25 tons per year for total hazardous air pollutants.
Municipal solid waste incinerators, hospital/medical infectious wastes incinerators, commercial and industrial solid waste incinerators, sewage sludge incinerators, and other types of incinerators especially the burning of hazardous waste of all kinds are subjected to the rules, regulations, and specific actions required under Clean Air Act, Title V permits. (See endnote 112.)
Sanitary landfills and hazardous waste landfills may produce a variety of air pollutants. These range from carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide to methane to hydrogen sulfide to a variety of other very hazardous gases. They may also release considerable amounts of particulate matter. (See the section on “Landfills and Hazardous Landfills,” above for further details.)