Best Practices for Alteration of Habitats (See endnote 6)
Since the various estuaries throughout the country differ so much, it is difficult to incorporate specific Best Practices. However, the US EPA lists seven general themes for watershed management.
- 1. Collect necessary information about watershed conditions through monitoring and research.
- 2. Increase public knowledge about sediments, nutrients, thermal modification, and chemical pollutants.
- 3. Form local partnerships for watershed protection with governmental agencies, activist groups, business and industry, landowners, and agricultural organizations.
- 4. Develop a plan for improvement and establish priorities.
- 5. Obtain and coordinate funding and technical assistance from the local, state, and federal level.
- 6. Implement the recommended solutions to the problems.
- 7. Evaluate the results and redirect the efforts were needed.
The water cycle which goes from the evaporation of water from the land, vegetation, and bodies of water to deposition of the water, is affected by climate change. The three major causes of climate change are:
- 1. The quantity of rain or snow that falls, the intensity of the deposition, and the location may be altered by the ambient temperatures. The amount and nature of pollutants found in the rain or snow is also affected. The quantity of water available to people and the various ecosystems to sustain good health, agriculture, production of energy and manufacturing, flow through the waterways for proper navigation, etc., varies with the amount which is readily available and the amount of usage which increases sharply with higher temperatures.
- 2. Water quality may be affected by increased runoff, substantial production of sediment, rise of sea levels, incursion of salt water into fresh water areas, and flooding. Large amounts of rain can overwhelm the water treatment plants, sewer systems, and waste treatment plants.
- 3. The oceans and other bodies of water can become more acid because of the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. This can affect all forms of marine life.
Best Practices for Climate Change
Best Practices for climate change are too complex for this portion of this chapter. (See Chapter 2,
“Air Quality (Outdoor [Ambient] and Indoor)” for more information.)
Combined Storm and Sanitary Sewer
Overflows in urban areas occur from substantial amounts of rainfall in short periods of time falling in a given locale, which is typically upstream from recreational or other use areas. (See Chapter 11, “Sewage Disposal Systems.”)
Best Practices for Combined Storm and Sanitary Sewer (See Chapter 11, “Sewage Disposal Systems”) Erosion
Erosion is the removal of soil and rock fragments by wind, water, snowmelt, flooding, rain, organisms, and gravity. It is also caused by fires, construction, agriculture, tree removal, drought, etc. It may lead to increased sediment in bodies of water.