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Education Policy and Power-Sharing in Post-Conflict Societies: Lebanon, Northern Ireland, and Macedo

HypothesesLebanon, Northern Ireland and MacedoniaDemographyThe Three ConflictsPeace Agreements: Consociations and Education ReformsMethodsStructureContribution to KnowledgeNotesPower-Sharing and Education Policy in Deeply Divided SocietiesIndividual and Ethnic IdentitiesSocial Identity TheoryDeeply Divided Societies and Violent ConflictIdentity-Based Conflict in Deeply Divided SocietiesGroup Identities and Violent ConflictConflict Resolution and ConsociationEstablishment and Resilience of ConsociationsComplex ConsociationsThe Consociational Paradox and Its CritiquesWhy Education?Schooling as Socialisation into a Myth-Symbol ComplexEducation as Socialisation into a Political OrderSchools and Identity-Based ConflictFrom War to PeaceThe National SubjectsThe Structure of SchoolingConclusionNotesCompulsory Education in Lebanon, Northern Ireland and MacedoniaLebanonFrench Mandate (1920-1943)National Pact (1943-1958)Compromises (1958-1974)Civil War (1975-1989)The Taif Agreement and Beyond (1990-Present)Northern IrelandNorthern Ireland (1920-1947)Limited Reform (1947-1968)Troubles (1968-1998)The Belfast Agreement and Beyond (1998-Present)MacedoniaAs Part of Yugoslavia (1918-1989)A Serbian Province (1918-1944)The People’s Republic of Macedonia (1945-1973)Decentralisation to Dissolution (1974-1990)Independent Macedonia (1991-2000)The Ohrid Agreement and Beyond (2001-Present)ConclusionNotesReforming History EducationHistory Education in Deeply Divided Societies: Theoretical DebatesLebanonMission ImpossibleA State SecretPolitical Disagreement Versus Historical EventsFragmented PastsNorthern IrelandThe 2005 Curriculum and Its WeaknessesAn Escapable Connection?MacedoniaA Proportional CurriculumWe Are Not Touching HistoryConclusionNotesFormulating Citizenship EducationCitizenship Education in Deeply Divided Societies: Theoretical DebatesLebanonCitizenship and Civic EducationThe Weaknesses of a Nationalist Civic EducationMoral PreachingNorthern IrelandElusive Bird: EMUFormulating and Implementing Personal Development and Mutual Understanding and local and Global CitizenshipStill ‘Patchy’: The Limits of Personal Development and Mutual Understanding and Local and Global CitizenshipTransformative, Not PrescriptiveMacedoniaLost in the Curriculum: Civic EducationThe Strategy for Integrated EducationTowards a Civic CultureConclusionNotesLanguages of InstructionTeaching Languages in Deeply Divided Societies: Theoretical DebatesLebanonEnrichment Bilingual EducationOld and New Cleavages in Language Policy'Practicality Won over Principle’Northern IrelandIrish-Language Education: Not in the Cold AnymoreUlster-Scots: Cashing in the ChequeParity of LanguagesMacedoniaThe Unintended Consequences of Increasing AccessCorrective MeasuresWalking the LineConclusionNotesInter-group Contact and Separation in SchoolsSeparate and Common Schools in Deeply Divided Societies: Theoretical DebatesLebanonPrivate versus Public?Sterilised Jars?A Communal BackyardNorthern IrelandFacilitate and Encourage Integrated EducationA Sterile Debate?SharingChange in the Air?Less Divided but Not Less DiverseMacedoniaDevolving EducationSeparating EducationThe Strategy for Integrated EducationPermanent CoexistenceConclusionNotesBibliography

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