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EU environmental law and policy

I PRIMARY LAW, INSTITUTIONAL AND HISTORICAL PREMISESThe European Union and Its StructureThe Origin and Development of the European UnionThe Nature of the European UnionThe Institutional StructureThe European CouncilThe CouncilThe CommissionThe European ParliamentThe CourtThe Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the RegionsThe EFTA and the EEASources of Law in the European UnionPriority and Direct EffectDecision-making ProceduresComitologyFurther ReadingObjectives, Principles, and ResourcesIntroductionEnvironment Action ProgrammesThe first four Action ProgrammesThe Fifth Environment Action ProgrammeThe Sixth Environment Action ProgrammeThe Seventh Environment Action ProgrammeEnvironmental Objectives and PolicyHistorical developmentNature and limits of the environmental objectivesGeographical limits of EU environmental policyPertinent PrinciplesSustainable developmentSubsidiarityProportionalityA high level of protectionPrecautionPreventive actionProximityPolluter-pays principleIntegrationSincere cooperationEqual treatment and legal certaintyInstitutional DevelopmentFinancial InstrumentsFurther ReadingFree Movement of Goods and the Room for Member State ActionIntroductionQuantitative Restrictions on Trade and Measures Having Equivalent EffectLegitimising Trade Restrictive MeasuresEnvironmental protection as a mandatory requirementDevelopments since the Danish bottle caseLegitimate grounds for exceptionsDiscriminationProportionalityAcceptable level of protectionNotification of Technical StandardsEnvironmental TaxesFurther ReadingDivision and Exercise of CompetenceCompetence and Legal BasesEnvironmental Policy as Legal Basis (Article 192 TFEU)Decision-making under Article 192Factors to be taken account of and financingMore stringent protective measuresThe Internal Market as a Legal Basis (Article 114 TFEU)National provisions derogating from a harmonisation measureNew derogating national provisionsThe Commission’s assessmentOther Legal BasesAgricultural and fisheries policy, Article 43 TFEUCommon commercial policy, Articles 206 and 207 TFEUTransport, Article 91 TFEUEnergy, Article 194 TFEUThe Extent of the Harmonising EffectChoice of Legal BasisThe EU’s External CompetenceMixed agreements and exclusive competenceThe status of international agreements in EU lawFurther ReadingMonitoring the Application of Union Environmental Law and SanctionsMember States’ ObligationsPenalties for IndividualsImplementation of EU LawThe Infringement ProcedureProcedure before the CommissionInfringement cases before the CourtSanctionActions for Annulment and for Failure to ActPreliminary RulingsAccess to Justice for Natural and Legal PersonsFurther ReadingII SECONDARY LAW Instruments, Approaches, and Trends in EU Secondary Environmental LawFurther ReadingCrosscutting IssuesEnvironmental Impact Assessment (EIA)IntroductionThe EIA DirectiveWhen is an EIA required?The EIAInformation to the public, public participation and access to justiceSignificant effects in other Member StatesDeciding on development consentThe SEA DirectiveWhen is an environmental assessment required?The environmental assessmentPrevention of Major Industrial Accidents (the Seveso Directive)EcolabellingThe EU Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS)Access to Information, Public Participation, and Access to JusticeAccess to environmental information in the Member StatesPublic participation and access to justice in the Member StatesAccess to information, public participation, and access to justice regarding EU institutions and bodiesInfrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE)European Pollutant Release and Transfer RegisterEnvironmental LiabilityEnvironmental damage and applicability of the ELDObligations on operators and authoritiesCost recoveryRequest for action and more protective measuresFurther ReadingIndustrial EmissionsIntroductionThe Industrial Emissions Directive (IED)Annex I activitiesBAT and emission limit valuesPermitsClosure and remediationInspections and public participationSpecial provisions on certain activitiesFinal provisionsFurther ReadingAir Quality and NoiseIntroductionAmbient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for EuropeNational Emission Ceilings for Certain Atmospheric PollutantsThe Clean Air Policy PackageSubstances that Deplete the Ozone LayerEmissions from Specific SourcesNoiseFurther ReadingWaterIntroductionThe Water Framework Directive (WFD)Environmental objectivesExemptions and common implementationProgrammes of measures, monitoring, and managementCombined approachRecovery of costsGroundwaterPriority hazardous substancesOther Legal Acts on Water ProtectionUrban waste-water treatmentPollution by nitrates from agricultural sourcesBathing water qualityWater for human consumptionFlood risksThe Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD)Targets, strategies, and monitoringProgrammes of measuresExceptionsShip-related PollutionShip-source pollution and penalties for infringementsOther acts on ship-related pollutionOffshore Oil and Gas OperationsMaritime Spatial PlanningFurther ReadingClimate and EnergyCommitments, Distribution, and MonitoringThe climate and energy packageThe 2030 Climate and Energy Policy FrameworkMonitoring, accounting, and reportingThe EU ETSAllocation of allowancesAviation in the EU ETSIssuance, surrender, and transfer of allowancesSources of Greenhouse Gases Outside the EU ETSEmissions of carbon dioxide from carsFluorinated greenhouse gasesEnergy from Renewable SourcesCarbon Capture and StorageEnergy EfficiencyEnergy Efficiency in the Built EnvironmentEcodesign of Energy-using ProductsEco LabellingFurther ReadingWasteIntroductionThe Framework Directive on WasteThe waste hierarchy and waste managementBy-products and end-of-wasteResponsibility for waste management and its costsHazardous wasteWaste management plans and waste prevention programmesShipments of WasteLandfill of WasteSpecific Waste StreamsPackaging and packaging wasteEnd-of-life vehiclesWaste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)Batteries and accumulatorsPCB/PCTWaste from extractive industriesSludgeShip-generated waste and cargo residuesShip recyclingFurther ReadingChemicalsIntroductionREACHRegistrationChemical safety reportInformation in the supply chainSubstance evaluationAuthorisation and substitutionRestrictionsHarmonising effectFurther provisionsClassification, Labelling, and PackagingPesticidesPlant protection productsAuthorisation of active substancesAuthorisation of PPPsMutual recognition and candidates of substitutionSustainable use of pesticidesMaximum residue levelsBiocidesExport and Import of Dangerous ChemicalsHazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (RoHS)Metallic MercuryPersistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)Further ReadingGenetically Modified OrganismsIntroductionDeliberate Release into the EnvironmentDeliberate releasePlacing on the marketNational prohibitions on cultivationFood and feedContained UseTransboundary Movements of GMOsFurther ReadingBiodiversityIntroductionThe Conservation ofWild BirdsThe Habitats DirectiveDefining areas and species to be protectedDesignation of areasProtective measuresInternational Trade in Species of Wild Fauna and FloraInvasive SpeciesOther Legal Acts and Strategies Protecting Biological DiversityFurther ReadingBibliography

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