Emissions from Specific Sources
In addition to the directives and regulations discussed previously, there are several legal acts regulating emissions from specific sources. To this category belong, inter alia, Directive 2010/75/EU on industrial emissions (IEDE9 and several acts concerning emissions from vehicles. Among the latter, mention can be made of Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 on type approval of motor vehicles with respect to emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6) which establishes common technical requirements for the type approval of motor vehicles and replacement parts, with regard to their emissions.  Emission limits corresponding to the so-called Euro 5 and Euro 6 standards for particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and ozone precursors such as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons are set out in Annex I. National authorities shall refuse, on grounds relating to emissions or fuel consumption, to grant EC-type approval or national-type approval for new types of vehicle which do not comply with the Regulation and its implementing measures, and now in particular with the Euro 6 limit values set out in Table 2 of Annex I.
The Commission has concluded that the reductions required by successive generations of Euro standards and fuel quality standards have been delivered, with one exception: NOx emissions from light-duty diesel engines. In fact, the real-world
NOx emissions from Euro 5 cars type-approved in the years following 2009 were found to exceed those of Euro 1 cars type-approved in 1992.31 In response to this the Commission has committed to a new test procedure in the type-approval framework to assess NOx emissions of light-duty vehicles under real-world driving conditions.32
With respect to carbon dioxide emission, limits are set out in Regulation (EC) No 443/2009 setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the EU’s integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles.33 CO2 emissions from heavy-duty vehicles are regulated in Regulation (EC) No 595/2009 on type-approval of motor vehicles and engines with respect to emissions from heavy-duty vehicles (Euro VI) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information.34 Emission limits according to the Euro 6 standard are set out in an Annex to the Directive.
In this context mention should also be made of Directive 98/70/EC relating to the quality of petrol and diesel fuels,35 as well as Directive 1999/32/EC relating to a reduction in the sulphur content of certain liquid fuels,36 which both regulate the characteristics of fuels. Under Directive 98/70/EC Member States may only place on the market petrol that complies with the requirements of Annex I. Among other things, the Directive severely restricts the marketing of leaded petrol and requires suppliers to gradually reduce life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions by 6 per cent by 31 December 2020. It also includes sustainability criteria for biofuels. The regulation of biofuels is further dealt with in the chapter on climate and energy.
There is also a directive from 1994 on the control of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions resulting from the storage of petrol and its distribution from terminals to service stations.37
In 2010, the Commission presented a strategy for clean and energy efficient vehicles (‘green vehicles’) aimed at encouraging the development and market uptake of these vehicles.38        
-  See section 8.2.
-  Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council on type approvalof motor vehicles with respect to emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 andEuro 6) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information  OJ L 171/1.
-  A Clean Air Programme for Europe (n 20) para 2.2.1.
-  32 CARS 2020: Action Plan for a competitive and sustainable automotive industry in Europe (8 November 2012) COM(2012) 636 final.
-  Regulation (EC) No 443/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council setting emissionperformance standards for new passenger cars as part of the Community’s integrated approach toreduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles  OJ L 140/1.
-  34 Regulation (EC) No 595/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on type-approvalof motor vehicles and engines with respect to emissions from heavy duty vehicles (Euro VI) and onaccess to vehicle repair and maintenance information ...  OJ L 188/1.
-  Directive 98/70/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council relating to the quality ofpetrol and diesel fuels and amending Council Directive 93/12/EEC  OJ L 350/58.
-  36 Council Directive 1999/32/EC relating to a reduction in the sulphur content of certain liquidfuels and amending Directive 93/12/EEC  OJ L 121/13.
-  European Parliament and Council Directive 94/63/EC on the control of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions resulting from the storage of petrol and its distribution from terminals toservice stations  OJ L 365/24.
-  Communication from the Commission—A European strategy on clean and energy efficient vehicles (28 April 2010) COM(2010)186 final.