- 1 The Innovation Journal, 11 August, 2001 (http://www.innovation.cc/discussion- papers/thoughts-innovation.htm).
- 2 The distinction between bottom-up and top-down innovations corresponds to Smith’s basic categories of innovations designed to engage citizens and those designed to change institutions (Smith 2005: 2).
- 3 For other general accounts of democratic innovations see Held and Pollitt 1986; Renn et al. 1995; Saward 2000; Schmitter and Trechsel 2004; Wisse 2006. Reviews of topics within the general field are presented by Budge 1996; OECD 2001; Scarrow 2001; LeDuc 2003; Catt and Murphy 2003; Gibson et al. 2004; Delli Carpini et al. 2004; Kriesi 2005; Zittel and Fuchs 2007; Margolis 2007: 765-82; and the two special issues of Acta Politica 2005 on empirical approaches to deliberative democracy.
- 4 For a version of the argument in its most recent guise see Caplan 2007. A recent discussion of the controversy is in Kuklinski and Peyton 2009: 45-64.
Abelson, J. and Gauvin, F.-P. (2006) Assessing the Impacts of Public Participation: Concepts, Evidence and Policy Implications, Ottawa: Canadian Policy Research Networks.
Barber, B. (1984) Strong Democracy: Participatory Politics for a New Age, Berkeley, CA: California University Press.
Barnes, S. and Kaase, M. et al. (1979) Political Action: Mass Participation in Five Western Democracies, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Bernstein, S., Lebow, R. N., Stein, J. G. and Weber, S. (2000) God Gave Physics the Easy Problems, European Journal of International Relations, March, Vol. 6 No. 1: 43-76.
Budge, I. (1996) The New Challenge of Direct Democracy, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Buhlmann, M., Merkel, W. and Wessels, B. (2007) The Quality of Democracy: Democracy Barometer for Established Democracies, in Challenges to Democracy in the 21st Century, National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR), Working Paper No. 10a, http:// www.nccr-democracy.uzh.ch/publications/workingpaper/pdf/WP10a.pdf (accessed 8 April 2011).
Burke, E. (1796) ‘Letter to a noble Lord’, in R.B. McDowell (Ed.) (1991) The Writings and Speeches of Edmund Burke, vol. IX, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Campbell, A., Converse, P, Miller, W. and Stokes, D. (1960) The American Voter, New York: John Wiley.
Caplan, B. (2007) The Myth of the Rational Voter: Why Democracies Choose Bad Policies, Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
Catt, H. and Murphy, M. (2003) What Voice for the People? Categorising Methods of Public Consultation, Australian Journal of Political Science, Vol. 38, No. 3: 407-21.
Converse, P (1964) The Nature of Belief Systems in Mass Publics, in Apter, D. (ed.), Ideology and Discontent, New York: Free Press.
Crozier, M., Huntington, S. P. and Watanuki, J. (1975) The Crisis of Democracy: Report on the Governability of Democracies to the Trilateral Commission, New York: New York University Press, 75-114.
Dahl, R. A. (1994) A Democratic Dilemma: System, Effectiveness versus Citizen Participation, Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 109, No. 1: 23-34.
Dalton, R. J. (1996) Citizen Politics, Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.
Dalton, R. J. (2004) Democratic Challenges, Democratic Choices: The Erosion in Political Support, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Delli Carpini, M. X., Cook, F. L., Lomax, F. and Jacobs, L. R. (2004) Public Deliberation, Discursive Participation, and Citizen Engagement: A Review of the Empirical Literature, Annual Review of Political Science, Vol. 7: 315-44.
Diamond, L. J. and Morlino, M. (2004) An Overview, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 15, No. 4: 20-31.
Evans, G., Heath, A. and Lalljee, M. (1996) Measuring Left-Right and Libertarian- Authoritarian Values in the British Electorate, British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 47, No. 1: 93-112.
Fung, A. (2003) Deliberative Democracy, Chicago Style: Grass Roots Governance in Policing and Public Education, in Fung, A. and Wright, E. O. (eds), Deepening Democracy: Institutional Innovations in Empowered Participatory Governance, London: Verso: 119-39.
Gibson, R. K., Rommele, A. and Ward, S. J. (eds) (2004) Electronic Democracy, London: Routledge.
Held, D. and McGrew, A. (1998) The End of the Old Order?, Review of International Studies, Vol. 24: 230.
Held, D. and Pollitt, C. (eds) (1986) New Forms of Democracy, London: Sage and The Open University.
Inglehart, R. J. (1997) Modernization and Postmodernization: Cultural, Economic, and Political Change in 43 Societies, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Inglehart, R. J. and Welzel, C. (2005) Modernization, and Democracy: The Human Development Sequence, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jennings, K. and van Deth, J. et al. (1990) Continuities in Political Action, Berlin and New York: de Gruyter.
Keele, L. (2007) Social Capital and the Dynamics of Trust in Government, American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 51, No. 2: 241-54.
Key, V. O. (1966) The Responsible Electorate: Rationality in Presidential Voting 1936-60, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Kline, S. J. and Rosenberg, G. (1986) An Overview of Innovation, The Positive Sum Strategy, Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Kriesi, H.-P. (2005) Direct Democratic Choice. The Swiss Experience, Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
Kuklinski, J. H. and Peyton, B. (2009) Belief Systems and Political Decision Making, in Dalton R. J. and Klingemann, H.-D. (eds), The Oxford Handbook ofPolitical Behaviour, Oxford: Oxford University Press: 45-64.
Landsberger H. A. (1958) Hawthorne Revisited, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Lang, A. (2007) But is it for Real? The British Columbia Citizens Assembly as a Model of State-Sponsored Citizen Empowerment, Politics and Society, Vol. 35: 85-105.
LeDuc, L. (2003) The Politics of Direct Democracy: Referendums in Global Perspective, Toronto: Broadview Press.
Madison, J. (1787) Federalist No. 10. See http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Federalist/10
Margolis, M. (2007) E-government and Democracy, in Dalton, R. J. and Klingemann H.-D. (eds), The Oxford Handbook ofPolitical Behaviour, Oxford: Oxford University Press: 765-82.
Mill, J.S. (2006, 1859) On Liberty, London: Penguin Classics.
Newton, K. (2006) Political Support, Social Capital, Civil Society and Political and Economic Performance, Political Studies, Vol. 54: 846-64.
Norris, P. (2002) Democratic Phoenix, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
O’Donnell, G. (1999) Horizontal Accountability in New Democracies, in Schedler, A., Diamond, L. and Plattner, M. F. (eds), The Self Restraining State: Power and Accountability in the New Democracies, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
OECD (2001) Engaging Citizens in Policy-Making: Information, Consultation and Public Participation, Puma Policy Briefing No. 10. Paris, OECD.
Page, B. I. and Shapiro, R. I. (1993) The Rational Public and Democracy, in Marcus, G. E. and Hansen, R. L. (eds), Reconsidering the Democratic Republics, State College, PA: Pennsylvania University Press.
Plato (1991). The Republic: The Complete and Unabridged Jowett Translation. New York: Vintage Books.
Renn, O., Webler, T. and Wiedemann, P. (eds) (1995) Fairness and Competence in Citizen Participation: Evaluating Models for Environmental Discourse, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Rowe, G. and Frewer L. J. (2004) Evaluating Public Participation Exercises: A Research Agenda, Science, Technology, and Human Values, Vol. 29, No. 4: 512-56.
Sartori, G. (1987) The Theory of Democracy Revisited, Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.
Saward, M. (ed.) (2000) Democratic Innovation, London: Routledge.
Scarrow, S. (2001) Direct Democracy and Institutional Change: A Comparative Investigation, Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 34: 651-65.
Schmitter, P. and Trechsel A. H. (2004) The Future of Democracy in Europe. Trends, Analysis and Reforms, Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
Schumpeter, J. A. (1942) Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, New York: Harper and Row.
Smith, G. (2005) Beyond the Ballot: Democratic Innovations from Around the World, London: Power Inquiry.
Smith, G. (2009) Democratic Innovations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Strange, S. (1996) The Retreat of the State: The Diffusion of Power in the World Economy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Van Creveld, M. (1999) The Rise and Decline of the State, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wisse, E. (2006) Promoting Democracy: An International Exploration of Policy and Implementation Practice, Amsterdam: Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations, Department of Constitutional Matters and Legislation.
Zaller, J. and Feldman, S. (1992) A Simple Theory of Survey Response, American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 36: 579-616.
Zittel, T. and Fuchs, D. (2007) Participatory Democracy and Political Participation, London: Routledge.