The need to address market fragmentation and to accommodate technological developments and changing economic conditions has been present in the debates surrounding the adoption of Creative Europe. So has the idea of promoting synergies and a transversal approach in terms of the programme's architecture and direction. The Commission's attempt to strengthen bridges between the cultural and creative sectors has essentially taken the form of promoting the spread of an economic and output-oriented approach to cultural support throughout the programme's scope and content, which both the Council and Parliament have sought to mitigate. Unresolved tensions have resulted in the establishment of a dichotomy in the programme's structure and its understanding of culture as a good, or service, and as having an intangible value and significance (Bruell, 2013: 47). This may undermine prospects for genuine cross-fertilisation between the various sectors supported by the programme and the promotion of synergies. In fact, the application of a transversal element has been reduced to the cross-sectoral strand and it remains to be seen whether the constrained budget of €60 million allocated to its 'policy cooperation' component will be able to perform its ambitious and not clearly defined goals.