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Home arrow Political science arrow Cultural Governance and the European Union: Protecting and Promoting Cultural Diversity in Europe

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Notes

  • 1. See Chapter 2 in this volume.
  • 2. Feedback was received, in particular, from the OMC working groups on developing synergies with education;on the mobility of artists and other culture professionals;and on cultural and creative industries.
  • 3. A general approach is a political agreement of the Council pending the first- reading position of the Parliament. A general approach is partial if it covers only parts of the proposed legislative act.
  • 4. The report was largely informed by two notes (IMO, 2012;KEA, 2012b) commissioned by the Parliament's policy department B - structural and cohesion policies.
  • 5. These include, inter alia, architecture, archives, libraries and museums, artistic crafts, the audiovisual (film, television, video games and multimedia) sector, tangible and intangible cultural heritage, design, festivals, music, literature, performing and visual arts, publishing and radio.
  • 6. See European Parliament and Council (2013a: Recital 21 and Article 13(2)).
  • 7. The broader term 'audience development' which refers to the development of an ongoing relationship with audiences, including their participation and education, replaced in the Regulation the term 'audiencebuilding', proposed by the Commission. See Bamford and Wimmer (2012).
  • 8. The priorities in the field of transnational circulation and mobility further include supporting European literature, international touring, events, exhibitions and festivals. See European Parliament and Council (2013a: Article 12(2)).
  • 9. Loan guarantees are provided to participating financial intermediaries. A pilot type of such an instrument had been established under MEDIA 2007: the MEDIA Production Guarantee Fund.
  • 10. The Commission acknowledged that only companies generating sufficient revenues able to reimburse financial intermediary loans would in practice benefit from the facility (European Commission, 2011d: 4).
  • 11. Elaborated in European Commission (2007a) and Council (2011a).
 
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