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  • 1 I am using the term “Orient” in the old-fashioned way, as did Edward Said in Orientalism (New York: Vintage Books, 1978, 2003). The focus is not on China or Japan but on Muslim West Asia and North Africa.
  • 2 Ivan Davidson Kalmar, “Jesus Did Not Wear a Turban: Orientalism, the Jews, and Christian Art,” in Ivan Davidson Kalmar and Derek Penslar (eds), Orientalism and the Jews (Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 2005).
  • 3 This is known from an inventory of his possessions taken at the time of his death: “Inventaris van de schilderijen mitsgaders meubilen en de huijsraet bevonden in den boedel van Rembrandt van Rijn,” Amsterdam Municipal Archives, Register of Inventories B, DBK 364, fos. 29r-38v. Reproduced, with a translation, by Walter L. Strauss and Marjon van der Meulen, The Rembrandt Documents (New York: Abaris, 1979), item 1656/12.
  • 4 J. Spence, An Essay on Mr. Pope’s Odyssey, in Five Dialogues (London: Wilmot, 1737), pp. 214-215; Brian Hepworth, Robert Lowth (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1978), pp. 26, 58-69, 68.
  • 5 Robert Lowth, Lectures on the Sacred Poetry of the Hebrews. [Translated from the Latin by G. Gregory with the Notes of Professor Michaelis and Others] (New York: Garland Pub, 1971), p. 362.
  • 6 Letter from Michaelis to Baron von Bernstorff of August 30, 1756, Literarischer Briefwechsel von Johann David Michaelis, ed. by Johann Gottlieb Buhle (Leipzig: Weidmannsche Buchhandlung, 1794-96, vol.1, p. 305, quoted here as translated in Jonathan M. Hess, Germans, Jews and the Claims of Modernity (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2002), p. 76.
  • 7 Michaelis, Literarischer Briefwechsel, pp. 302-304.
  • 8 See the papers in Josef Wiesehofer and Stephan Conermann (eds),Carsten Niebuhr, 1733-1815, und seine Zeit (Stuttgart: F. Steiner, 2002).
  • 9 Francois Rene de Chateaubriand, Travels to Jerusalem and the Holy Land, Vol. 1, p. 1 (London: Henry Colburn, 1835); Alain Guyot, Itineraire de Paris a Jerusalem de Chateaubriand: L’invention du voyage romantique (Paris: Presses de l’Universite Paris-Sorbonne, 2006).
  • 10 Robert Blake, Disraeli’s Grand Tour: Benjamin Disraeli and the Holy Land, 1830-31 (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1982).
  • 11 Maurice R. Hayoun, Renan, la Bible et les Juifs (Paris: Arlea, 2008).
  • 12 Ignaz Goldziher, Ignaz Goldziher and His Oriental Diary: A translation andpsycho- logical portrait, edited by Raphael Patai (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1987).
  • 13 See, for example, Nicholas Tromans and Rana Kabbani (eds), The Lure of the East: British orientalist painting (London: Tate, 2008); Kristian Davies, The Orientalists: Western artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia and India (New York: Laynfaroh, 2005); Christine Peltre, Orientalisme (Paris: Terrail, 2004).
  • 14 Helene Lafont-Couturier (ed.), Gerome & Goupil: Art et entreprise (Bordeaux: Musee Goupil, 2000).
  • 15 Kalmar, “Jesus did Not Wear a Turban.”
  • 16 Johannes Fabian, Time and the Other: How anthropology makes its object (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002), p. 22.
  • 17 Ivan Kalmar, Early Orientalism: Imagined Islam and the notion of sublime power (London and New York: Routledge, 2012), ch. 8. “The sublime is not enough: The hard orientalism of G.F.W. Hegel,” pp. 76-87.
  • 18 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion, edited by Peter C. Hodgson, vol. 2 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987), p. 156. Emphasis added.
  • 19 That, in any case, is the most literal translation; the German reads grofler Satz der judischen, uberhaupt arabischen Religion des westlichen Morgenlandes und Afrikas.

Peter C. Hodgson translates it as “the great thesis of Jewish and of Arab religion generally” (Philosophy of Religion, p. 129).

  • 20 See Ivan Davidson Kalmar, “Benjamin Disraeli: Romantic Orientalist,” Comparative Studies of Society and History 47, no. 2 (2005).
  • 21 Audrey Smedley, Race in North America: Origin and evolution of a worldview, edited by Brian D. Smedley, 4th edn. (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2012).
  • 22 Ernest Renan, Histoire generale et systeme compare des langues semitiques: 1. Ptie. 4th ed. (Paris: Levy, 1863).
  • 23 Ernest Renan, The Life of Jesus (New York: A.L. Burt, 1894), p. 70.
  • 24 Shlomo Sand, On the Nation and the "Jewish People ”, (New York: Verso, 2010), p. 25.
  • 25 Ernest Renan, The Life of Jesus, p. 83.
  • 26 Houston Stewart Chamberlain, Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (New York: H. Fertig, 1968).
  • 27 Susannah Heschel, The Aryan Jesus: Christian theologians and the Bible in Nazi Germany (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2008).
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