1 Edward Said, Orientalism (New York:Vintage Books, 1979), p. 4.
2 Ibid., p. 76.
3 Yehoshua Ben-Arieh, “The Geographical Exploration of the Holy Land,” Palestine Exploration Quarterly, 1972, p. 83. An early, but comprehensive, bibliography of travel accounts of Palestine is provided by Reinhold Rohricht, Bibliotheca Geographica Palaestinae (Berlin: H. Reuther’s, 1890).
4 Said, Orientalism, p. 76; Sadiq Al-‘Azm, “Orientalism and Orientalism in Reverse,” in Jon Rothschild (ed.), Forbidden Agendas: Intolerance and Defiance in the Middle East (London: Saqi, 1984), pp. 349-376. Al-‘Azm’s essay was first published in Khamsin, no. 8, 1981, pp. 5-26 and is also reprinted in Alexander L. Macfie (ed.), Orientalism: A Reader (New York: NYU Press, 2000), pp. 217-238.
5 Said, Orientalism, pp. 2-3. I published a survey of the debate over Said’s Orientalism in my Reading Orientalism: Said and the Unsaid (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2007).
6 Said, Orientalism, p. 17.
7 John Calvin, “Institutes of the Christian Religion,” in A.D. Galloway (ed.), Basic Readings in Theology (Cleveland: Meridian Books, 1964), p. 166.
8 Quoting the Biblical prophet Habbakuk, William Thomson (The Land and the Book; or, Biblical Illustrations Drawn from the Manners and Customs, the Scenes and Scenery of the Holy Land, London: T. Nelson & Sons, 1901, p. 64) said: “The stone cries out of the wall, and the beam out of the timber will answer. We only need to know how to put them to the question.”
9 Thomson, The Land and the Book, p. 1.
10 Said’s approach was applied uncritically to the fine arts by Linda Nochlin, “The Imaginary Orient”, Art in America, no. 71, May 1983, pp. 118-131, 186-191. For a more nuanced survey of Orientalist art, see John M. MacKenzie, Orientalism: History, Theory and the Arts (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995) and Roger Benjamin, Orientalist Aesthetics: Art, Colonialism, and French Africa, 18801930 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003).
11 See Said, Orientalism, pp. 36-42 for his analysis of Cromer as an archetypal Orientalist.
12 Aristotle, The Art of Rhetoric, trans. H.C. Lawson-Tancred (London: Penguin Books, 1991), p. 75.
13 Henry J. Van-Lennep, Bible Lands: Their Modern Customs and Manners Illustrative of Scripture (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1875), p. 7.
14 In his study of the twentieth-century folklorist Tawfiq Canaan, who also accepted the notion that Palestinian folklore was a reflection of Biblical customs, Salim Tamari (“Lepers, Lunatics and Saints: The Nativist Ethnography of Tawfiq Canaan and his Jerusalem Circle”, Jerusalem Quarterly, no. 20, 2004, p. 29), observes: “These essentialist assumptions did not prevent Canaan and his circle from producing an ethnographic corpus that was rich in empirical detail and textured in the manner it examined regional variations in peasant lore all over Palestine.” It is the quality of the observer and not just the specific assumptions held that needs to be assessed in judging the value of the data.
15 Daniel Martin Varisco, “The Archaeologist’s Spade and the Apologist’s Stacked Deck: The Near East through Conservative Christian Bibliolatry”, in Abbas Amanat and Magnus T. Bernhardsson (eds), The United States and the Middle East: Cultural Encounters (New Haven: YCIAS Working Paper Series, 2002), pp. 57-116.
16 Van-Lennep, Bible Lands, p. 5.
17 Ibid., p. 6.
18 Ibid., p. 7.
19 Idem., The Oriental Album: Twenty Illustrations, in Oil Colors, of the People and Scenery of Turkey (New York: Anson D.F. Randolph, 1862). These include two scenes of Jewish life in the Ottoman Empire, “A Turkish Effendi”, “Armenian Lady (at home)”, “Turkish and Armenian Ladies (abroad)”, and “Turkish Scribe”.
20 Van-Lennep, Bible Lands, p. 341.
21 Ibid., p. 351.
22 Ibid., pp. 373-374.
23 Ibid., p. 537.
24 Ibid., p. 539.
25 Ibid., p. 538.
26 Said, Orientalism, p. 208.
27 Thomson, The Land and the Book, p. 688.
28 Ibid., p. 679.
29 Ibid., pp. 24-25. In describing a typical prayer sequence, he states: “There is certainly an air of great solemnity in their modes of worship, and, when performed by a large assembly in the mosques, or by a detachment of soldiers in concert, guided in their genuflections by an imam or dervish, who sings the service, it is quite impressive” (p. 25). After noting that not all this ceremony should be interpreted as “hollow-hearted hypocrisy”, he exclaims: “What opposite conclusions different persons can and do draw from the same premises!”
30 Thomson, The Land and the Book, p. 369.
31 Ibid., p. 255.
32 Ibid., p. 369.
33 Ibid., p. 556.
34 See Said, Orientalism, p. 27.
35 Ibid., p. 65.
36 Thomson, The Land and the Book, p. 102.
37 Ibid., p. 105.
38 An example would be the two appendices in Van-Lennep, Bible Lands, pp. 813-816, on proverbs and translation of an Arab poem.
39 Thomson, The Land and the Book, p. 687.
40 Van-Lennep, Bible Lands, pp. 714-725.
41 See the discussion on the cover art in my Reading Orientalism, pp. 24-27.
42 An exception is the image of “Self-Torture of Religious Devotee” (Van-Lennep, Bible Lands, pp. 765, 769), but Van-Lennep notes that these frenzied practices are also found among Christians and Druze, not just Muslim dervishes. Even here the example is said to illustrate the blood-letting of the prophets of Baal in 1 Kings xviii: 28.