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Notes

  • 1 Rasheed El-Enany, Arab Representations of the Occident: East-West Encounters in Arabic Fiction (London and New York: Routledge, 2006), p. 1.
  • 2 Edward Said, Orientalism (London: Penguin Books, 2003), p. 2.
  • 3 Ibid., p. 4.
  • 4 Ibid.
  • 5 Robert Irwin, For Lust of Knowing: The Orientalists and Their Enemies (London: Penguin Books, 2007), p. 6.
  • 6 www.thefreedictionary.com.
  • 7 Said, Orientalism, p. 50.
  • 8 Fernendo Coronil, “Beyond Occidentalism: Towards Post-Imperial Geohistorical Categories”, Cultural Anthropology, Vol. 11 (1996), pp. 51-87.
  • 9 Ferhat Abbas, Le Jeune Algerien (Paris: La Jeune Parque, 1931).
  • 10 Idem., J’Accuse l’Europe (Alger: Liberation, 1944.)
  • 11 Idem., La Nuit coloniale (Paris: Julliard, 1962).
  • 12 Albert Memmi, The Colonizer and the Colonized (London: Souvenir Press Ltd, 1974).
  • 13 Abdelkebir Khatibi, La Memoire tatouee (Paris: Denoel, 1971).
  • 14 Idem., Amour bilingue (Montpellier: Fata Morgana, 1983).
  • 15 Frantz Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks, translated by Charles Lam Markmann (New York: Grove Press, 1967).
  • 16 Idem., The Wretched of the Earth, translated by Constance Farrington (New York: Grove Press, 1963).
  • 17 Coronil, “Beyond Occidentalism”, p. 57.
  • 18 Malek Alloula, The Colonial Harem (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1986).
  • 19 Ibid., p. 31.
  • 20 Ibid., p. 4.
  • 21 Marnia Lazreg, The Eloquence of Silence: Algerian Women in Question (New York: Routledge, 1994), p. 39.
  • 22 Alloula, The Colonial Harem, p. 29.
  • 23 Anouar Abdel-Malek, “Orientalism in Crisis”, Diogenes, Vol. 44, Winter 1963, pp. 104-112.
  • 24 Ibid., pp. 107-108.
  • 25 Ibid., p. 107.
  • 26 Abdelmajid Hannoum, “Faut-it braler l’Orientalisme? On French Scholarship ofNorth Africa”, Cultural Dynamics, Vol. 16, 2004, pp. 71-91.
  • 27 Ibid., p. 71.
  • 28 Ibid., p. 76.
  • 29 Ibid., p. 75.
  • 30 Jacques Berque, “Cent vingt-cinq ans de sociologie maghrebine”, Annales, Vol. XI, No. 3, 1956, pp. 299-321, cited in Abdel-Malek, “Orientalism in Crisis”, p. 107.
  • 31 Ibid.
  • 32 Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punishment (London: Tavistock, 1977), p. 27.
  • 33 Barthelemy d’Herbelot de Molainville, Bibliotheque orientale, ou dictionnaire universel contenant tout ce qui regarde la connaissance des peuples de l’Orient, 4 vols. (The Hague: Quatro, 1777-1799).
  • 34 De Lacy O’Leary, How Greek Science Passed to the Arabs. First published in Great Britain in 1949 by Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd. www.aina.org/books/hgsptta.htm - accessed 13 October 2010.
  • 35 Charles Issawi, Cross-Cultural Encounters and Conflicts (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), p. 72.
  • 36 Ibn Khaldun, The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History, trans. Frantz Rosenthal (Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press: 2005), p. 39.
  • 37 Ibid., pp. 41, 214.
  • 38 Ibid., p. 373.
  • 39 Said, Orientalism, p. 65.
  • 40 Irwin, For Lust of Knowing, p. 20.
  • 41 For more details see: Roger Crowley, Empires of the Sea: The Siege of Malta, the Battle of Lepanto and the Conquest for the Center of the World (London: Random House, 2008).
  • 42 See William Bedwell, Mohammedis imposturae, 1615, and Humphrey Prideaux, The True Nature of Imposture Fully Displayed in the Life of Mahomet, 1697.
  • 43 Derek Hopwood, Sexual Encounters in the Middle East: The British, the French and the Arabs (Reading: Ithaca Press, 1999).
  • 44 Abdel Latif Tibawi, “English-speaking Orientalists: a Critique of their Approach to Islam and Arab Nationalism”, Islamic Quarterly, Vol. 8, 1964, pp. 25-45.
  • 45 Irwin, For Lust of Knowing, pp. 319-320.
  • 46 Lila Abu-Lughod, “Zones of Theory in the Anthropology of the Arab World,” Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 18, 1989, p. 267.
  • 47 Abdel Malek, “Orientalism in Crisis”, p. 108.
  • 48 Abu-Lughod, “Zones of Theory”, p. 267.
  • 49 James G. Carrier (ed.), Occidentalism: Images of the West (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2003), p. 1.
  • 50 Ibid., p. 26.
  • 51 Said, Orientalism, p. 70.
  • 52 Laura Nader, “Orientalism, Occidentalism and the Control of Women”, Cultural Dynamics, Vol. 2, 1989, pp. 323-355.
  • 53 Ibid., p. 333.
  • 54 Nicholas Thomas, “Anthropology and Orientalism”, Anthropology Today, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1991, pp. 4-7.
  • 55 Ibid., p. 7.
  • 56 Carrier, Occidentalism, p. 10.
  • 57 Ibid., pp. 12-13.
  • 58 Ibid., p. 12.
  • 59 Ian Buruma and Avishai Margalit, Occidentalism: A Short History of Anti-Westernism (London: Atlantic Books, 2004), p. 5.
  • 60 Ibid., p. 10.
  • 61 Ibid., pp. 10-11.
  • 62 Ibid., p. 56.
  • 63 Maitre Gisele Halimi defended Djamila Boubacha, an Algerian freedom fighter who was arrested and tortured in prison while she was a minor. For more details see: Simone De Beauvoir and Gisele Halimi, Djamila Boupacha: The Story of the Torture of a Young Algerian Girl which Shocked Liberal French Opinion, trans. Peter Green (London: Andre Deutsch Ltd and George Weidenfeld and Nicolson Ltd, 1962).
  • 64 Maitre Jacques Verges defended the famous Djamila Bouhired, who, like Boubacha was also a freedom fighter who was arrested and tortured in prison. She later became Verges’ wife.
  • 65 Jean Baudrillard, The Spirit of Terrorism (New York-London: Verso, 2002).
  • 66 Mouloud Feraoun, Lettres a ses amis (Paris: Le Seuil, 1962), p. 154. (My translation).
  • 67 Ibid.
  • 68 Guy de Maupassant, Au Soleil (Paris: Ollendorff, 1902), pp. 5-6.
  • 69 Philipe Lucas and Claude Vatin, LAlgerie des Antropologues (Paris: Maspero, 1982), pp. 96-99.
  • 70 Louis Bertrand, Le Sang des races (Paris: Albin Michel, 1899).
  • 71 D.M. Gallup, “The French Image of Algeria: Its Origins, Its Place in Colonial Ideology, Its Effect on Algerian Acculturation”, PhD thesis, University of California, 1973), p. 274.
  • 72 Hopwood, Sexual Encounters, p. 89.
  • 73 Aly El-Hammamy, Idris (Algiers: Entreprise Nationale du Livre, 1988), p. 261.
  • 74 El-Enany, Arab Representations, p. 6.
  • 75 Aziz Al-Azmeh and Effie Fokas (eds), Islam in Europe: Diversity, Identity and Influence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), p. 208.
  • 76 Khatibi, Amour bilingue, pp. 105-106.
 
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