1. Following criticism of her framework, which assimilated cosmopolitanism with universalism, even Nussbaum qualified her remarks to concede that the term should not insist we provide ‘equal attention to all parts of the world’ and that ‘it is right to give the local an additional measure of concern’ (1996b: 135).
2. In this sense, the study echoes David Hollinger’s assertion that cosmopolitanism is ‘more oriented to the individual’ (1995: 86).
3. The process of glocality will be defined as the ways in which local landscapes and experiences are reconfigured by globalising (or simply wider cultural) forces.
4. Drawing on empirical data from their ‘Cosmopolitanism Index Rankings 2005’ (based on levels of globalisation within nation-states), Pippa Norris and Ronald Inglehart suggest that established Anglo-American and Western European countries are the most ‘cosmopolitan’, while China and African nations imposed the most barriers to information flows (2009: 158-9).
5. This study therefore echoes Emily Johansen’s call for cosmopolitanism to move away from ‘static binaries between privilege and marginalization’, or between ‘elite and subaltern subjects’, to reflect interconnectedness between ‘different cosmopolitan modalities and imagine emancipatory, nonhierar- chial forms of global connection’ (2014: 3).
6. Amanda Anderson, The Powers of Distance: Cosmopolitanism and the Cultivation of Detachment (2001); Jessica Berman, Modernist Fiction, Cosmopolitanism and the Politics of Community (2001); Rebecca Walkowitz, Cosmopolitan Style: Modernism beyond the Nation (2006).
7. As Richard Kostelanetz emphasises, ‘[p]ost’ can be ‘a petty prefix, both today and historically, for major movements are defined in their own terms, rather than by their relation to something else’ (1982: 38).
8. David Mitchell’s Ghostwritten was published in August 1999.