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Historical Sociolinguistics: Language Change in Tudor and Stuart England

Sociolinguistic Backprojection?Contemporary Perceptions of UsageSociohistorical ReconstructionResearch TopicsNotesSociolinguistic Paradigms and Language ChangeSociolinguistic ParadigmsDescriptions and ExplanationsTheoretical PluralismTheory in Historical SociolinguisticsNotesPrimary Data: Background and InformantsData in Historical SociolinguisticsThe 'Bad-Data' ProblemThe Advantages of Historical DataGeneric and Temporal ConcernsTextual Variation and Historical SociolinguisticsPeriodizationTudor and Stuart EnglandOverall Developments and Major ChangesSocial StructureMigration and Regional DifferencesEducation and LiteracyThe Corpus of Early English Correspondence (CEEC)General OutlineThe MaterialThe Informants: Social and Regional CoverageNotesReal TimeThe S-Shaped CurveTiming Linguistic ChangesPrevious StudiesThe Time Courses of Fourteen ChangesReplacement of Subject ye by youMy and thy versus mine and thinePossessive Determiner itsProp-word oneObject of the GerundNoun Subject of the GerundPresent Indicative Third-Person Singular Suffix -s versus -th (have and do excluded)Periphrastic do in Affirmative StatementsPeriphrastic do in Negative StatementsDecline of Multiple NegationInversion after Initial Adverbs and NegatorsRelative Pronouns which and the whichPrepositional Phrase vs. Relative AdverbIndefinite Pronouns with Singular Human ReferenceConclusionNotesApparent TimeOngoing Change in Relation to AgeApparent Time in Historical ResearchPrevious StudiesAge Cohorts and Individual Participation in Ongoing ChangesAge CohortsIndividuals in Successive Periods of TimeConclusionNotesGenderThe Gender ParadoxHistorical ReconstructionGender InequalityImplications for Historical SociolinguisticsPrevious StudiesGender and Real-Time Linguistic ChangeWomen Ahead of MenSubject form youPossessive determiner itsProp-word ONEObject of the gerundNoun subject of the gerundThird-person singular -sIndefinite pronouns with singular human referenceSwitches from Male to Female AdvantagePeriphrastic do in affirmative statementsPeriphrastic do in negative statementsRelative adverb vs. prepositional phraseMen Ahead of WomenDecline of multiple negationInversion after initial negatorsRelative pronoun whichConclusionNotesSocial StratificationSocial Order in SociolinguisticsReconstructing Social OrderPrevious StudiesSocial Order in Language ChangeEmpirical Diachronic ResearchFull Range of Social VariationChanges along the S-CurveSubject you versus yeObject of the gerundThird-person singular -s versus -thDecline of multiple negationRelative pronoun which versus the whichOrigin and Direction of Language ChangeEvaluation: the Behaviour of Social AspirersConclusionNotesRegional VariationRegional Dialects in England TodayReconstructing Regional Differences in Tudor and Stuart EnglandStating the ProblemContemporary ViewsThe Variability of London EnglishThe Scope of Our StudyPrevious Empirical StudiesRegional Variation in Late Middle and Early Modern EnglishChanges Led by the Capital RegionSubject form youObject of the gerundNoun subject of the gerundPeriphrastic do in affirmative statementsDecline of multiple negationRelative pronoun whichRelative adverb vs. prepositional phraseChanges Spreading from the NorthThird-person singular -sLow-Frequency Seventeenth-Century ProcessesConclusionNotesHistorical Patterning of Sociolinguistic VariationModelling VariabilityLinguistic and Social FactorsStyle and Sociolinguistic VariationModelling Sociolinguistic Variation HistoricallyPrevious Empirical StudiesVARBRUL Analyses of Five Historical ChangesResultsObject of the gerundSummary and ConclusionsNotesLanguage Change and the IndividualIndividuals as OutliersPatterns of Lifespan ChangeLifespan Change in the IndividualLifespan Change in the CommunityLeaders of Linguistic ChangeSummary and ConclusionsNotesLanguage Change: Transmission and DiffusionComplementary Perspectives on Language ChangeSocial Networks and Language ChangeTwo Studies of Family NetworksLanguage Change in a Merchant Family NetworkIssues in Stable VariationIrregular verb formsAlveolar realization of -ingWas with plural subjectsMultiple negationCorpus StabilityConclusionNotesThe Changes in RetrospectThe Principle of ContingencyUninterrupted Continuity of Change?PostscriptNotes

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