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The operationalization of the model

To test our model using the three dependent variables discussed above, we will use the following indicators. For Atlanticism we will use the Atlanticism index discussed in the previous chapter (see Table 3.5 that reports the summary statistics for these variables in 2004). It is a summated rating index of three main variables: attitudes toward a US and EU leadership (for Europe and US), support for NATO (the 'NATO still essential' question) and whether the US-EU partnership should be closer, the same or more independent. The typology for the use of force is based on two different measures that will be used alternatively: four dummies, one for each group of our typology and an ordered variable that excludes the isolationists and ranges from 0 - the Doves, the most opposed to the use of force - to 2 for the Hawks, with the Pragmatists in between. The Threat perception variable for Realism and Global threats is based on a summated rating of the answers to a set of questions about how crucial a threat is for each of a list of items. The higher the score, the more the respondent tends to indicate that all items are a crucial threat. An item is assigned to the Realist or Global dimensions based on the factor analysis discussed in the previous chapter. The sense of we-feeling is expressed as the feeling thermometer for the US and EU, ranging from 0 to 100. The Ideological position is measured on a 7-point scale ranging from extreme Left to extreme Right, with a middle point. We also included three background variables: gender, age (in four classes) and education (also in four classes).8

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