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Flipping the classroom refers to Bloom's Cognitive Learning Taxonomy (1956), a commonly accepted identification of levels of learning (Anderson and Krathwohl 2001; Bean 2011; Shibley and Wilson 2012), and thus an easily identifiable model with which to distinguish LCT from TL. Exhibit 2.1 has inverted Bloom's taxonomy to illustrate flipping the classroom. In a TL, the teacher normally progresses through the taxonomy starting with imparting knowledge:

• Knowledge: covering content with PowerPoint presentations, lecturers, and so on

• Comprehension: offering alternative descriptions and definitions, followed by a question of "What does this mean in your own words?"

• Application: solving problems step-by-step, demonstrating necessary calculations, and solving homework problems replicating calculations

• Analysis: comparing and explaining results from different problems

• Evaluation: questioning validity of assumptions, processes, and textbook sections on weaknesses in the model

• Synthesis: concluding with summaries and overviews

We may recognize the TL approach from our own experience or through classroom observation of peers.

To further illustrate the levels of learning, Anderson and Krathwohl's (2001) revision of Bloom's taxonomy is included in the center column of Exhibit 2.1. The third column contains an expanded list of active learning for additional clarification.

Learner-Centered Teaching

In LCT, content is used as a means to learning (Weimer 2002). Envision a learning process in which students compute a financial problem, examine different points of view, review and comment on an article, or postulate explanations for survey results. The knowledge (content) is discovered and used by the students in the learning process. Content in LCT is used as a means to learning (Weimer 2002), not presented and covered as in the context of a TL. In effect, as the examples will demonstrate, LCT enters Bloom's Cognitive Learning Taxonomy through the higher levels of application, analysis, evaluation, and synthesis.

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