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Why LCT?

A primary explanation for education moving toward LCT is based on learning research that supports "more active, inductive instruction" (Smart, Witt, and Scott 2012). Increased student engagement, strengthened team-based skills, personalized student guidance, focused classroom discussion, and faculty freedom are several benefits of the growing LCT pedagogical adoption (Millard 2012). In a review of pedagogical literature with courses adopting LCT, Wright (2011, p. 96) found college teachers believe "a more effective learning environment" was provided, and "students tended to respond positively." A smaller study by Wohlfarth et al. (2008) acknowledged the need for further research and offered strong qualitative student support of LCT's importance in assisting learning.

There are several other reasons why LCT should be adopted. In a paper applying 29 components to benchmark the degree of LCT implementation, Blumberg and Pontiggia (2011) note the importance of LCT in their institutions' faculty development workshops, the implications for assessments and accreditation, and potential student admission promotional material. Yang (2010, p. 80) offers a globalization justification to adopt LCT, the need to "encourage students to actively participate in the discussion, and the need for students to fully express their views," even if it is counter to student cultural behavior.

Poor teaching experience with the TL is another supporting reason for LCT. The prepared TL covering knowledge, with students attempting to retain and simultaneously comprehend key points, may appear more as a sermon, speech, homily, or oration. Instructors, from their own experience or through classroom observation of peers, may relate to the "picture of somewhat lifeless students sitting passively in classrooms, with glazed eyes, some struggling to stay awake in dimmed classrooms as an instructor shared key concepts ... using slides" (Smart, Witt, and Scott 2012, p. 393).

The educational goal is to engage students to become active versus passive learners by promoting critical thinking and "emphasizing inquiry" (Bean 2011, p. 38). LCT's flipped classrooms focus on critique, assess, hypothesize, and speculate, the higher levels of Bloom's Cognitive Learning Taxonomy. The base levels of knowledge and understanding maybe assigned before class (Shibley and Wilson 2012).

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