APPENDIX: LCT ERM EXAMPLES FROM THE HOW
This appendix provides several LCT examples along with the related TL alternatives for an ERM course that has been conducted at Auburn University Montgomery (Alabama) since 2010. All examples and page number references apply to Enterprise Risk Management: Today's Leading Research and Best Practices for Tomorrow's Executives, co-edited by John Fraser and Betty J. Simkins (2010). Learning notes (LN) include pedagogical suggestions and course experiences. The following LCT examples are generally small group discussions, but LCT often includes reading assignments or problems that may be done prior to the actual class meeting (Shibley and Wilson 2012). In each example, TL begins with the traditional teacher lecture on the topic (such as using PowerPoint slides to speak to the students and cover the material, etc.). LCT starts with the students.
While reviewing the examples, imagine the possible implications of Weimer's (2002) "Five Key Changes to Practice" described in this chapter where the process has been flipped. Most importantly, notice how content is covered but not in a traditional lecture context where the teacher presents the information. Rather, content is used as a means of learning. Additional examples of LCT for business communication courses are contained in Smart, Witt, and Scott (2012). Wright (2011) offers an insightful pedagogical literature review of Weimer's "Five Key Changes to Practice."
Example #1. Chapter 2: A Brief History of Risk Management
TL: Risk management "spans the millennia of human history" (page 19). Cover the list of significant milestones in a series of PowerPoint slides and explain the contribution of each to the development of ERM.
LCT: Review the List of Contributions (pages 22-27) and suggest the three most significant milestones in the development of ERM.
Comment on why your group chose these milestones.
Was the group generally in agreement? If not, what were the other selected milestones?
LN: Groups generally differ on the top three milestones, usually based on different themes: economic events, creation of professional organizations, contributions and development of risk management theory, or possibly legislative actions.
The list of significant milestones small group exercise provides an early and substantial insight into LCT. Rather than memorize, recall, and explain, the students are asked to review, suggest, and comment – all higher levels of Bloom's Cognitive Learning Taxonomy. It is most rewarding to see students argue about the top three, supporting their choices by associating or assessing the impact of milestones on the development of risk management. There may not even be a top three, and even if there is, the teacher has a postgroup selection opportunity to guide the discussion or note the differences in theme the groups selected.