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Notes

  • 1. George Horton Kelling, Countdown to Rebellion: British Policy in Cyprus, 1939-1955 (London, 1990), pp. 52-53.
  • 2. Rappas, ‘The Labor Question in Colonial Cyprus’, p. 204.
  • 3. Peristianis, ‘The Rise of the Left’, p. 250.
  • 4. AKEL Manifesto (article 13), 5 October 1941, cited in: Protopapas, ‘The Rise of a Bi-Polar Party System’, pp. 272-273.
  • 5. Between 1937 and 1947, as British law banned non-Cypriots from the archbishopric and as two of Cyprus’s three bishops had been exiled in 1931, the church was unable to fill the role , and the bishop of Paphos instead was locum tenens, or acting archbishop (Sarah Stockwell, ‘“Improper and Even Unconstitutional”: the Involvement of the Church of England in the Politics of the End of Empire in Cyprus’, in: Melanie Barber, Stephen Taylor, and Gabriel Sewell (eds), From the Reformation to the Permissive Society (Woodbridge, 2010), p. 589).
  • 6. Tombazos, ‘AKEL’, p. 220; Prodromos Panayiotopoulos, ‘The Emergent Post-Colonial State in Cyprus’, Commonwealth & Comparative Politics, 37/1 (1999), p. 41.
  • 7. Neophytos G. Loizides, ‘Ethnic Nationalism and Adaptation in Cyprus’, International Studies Perspectives, 8 (2007), p. 178.
  • 8. Michalis Michaelides, ‘The Turkish Cypriot Working Class and the Cyprus Labour Movement, 1920-1963’, The Cyprus Review, 5 (1993), p. 36.
  • 9. Yiouli Taki and David Officer, ‘Civil Society and the Public Sphere’, in: James Ker-Lindsay and Hubert Faustmann (eds), The Government and Politics of Cyprus (Oxford, 2009), p. 207; Alexis Rappas, Cyprus in the 1930s: British Colonial Rule and the Roots of the Cyprus Conflict (London, 2014), p. 180; Rappas, ‘The Labor Question in Colonial Cyprus’, p. 203.
  • 10. Nelson K. Neocleus, ‘Cyprus’, in: Joan Campbell (ed.), European Labor Unions (Westport, CT, 1992), p. 55.
  • 11. Yiangou, Cyprus in World War II, p. 68.
  • 12. Taki and Officer, ‘Civil Society’, p. 207.
  • 13. Gregoris Ioannou, Labour Relations in Cyprus: Employment, Trade Unionism and Class Composition (unpublished PhD thesis, University of Warwick, 2011), pp. 34-35.
  • 14. Taki and Officer, ‘Civil Society’, p. 207; Crawshaw, The Cyprus Revolt, p. 31; Adams, AKEL, pp. 136-137.
  • 15. Kelling, Countdown to Rebellion, p. 53.
  • 16. Peristianis, ‘The Rise of the Left’, pp. 250-251.
  • 17. Holland, Britain and the Revolt in Cyprus, p. 13; Yiangou, Cyprus in World War II, Chapters 5 and 6.
  • 18. Yiangou, Cyprus in World War II, pp. 81, 105-107; Edward M. Collins, Myth, Manifesto, Meltdown: Communist Strategy, 1848-1991 (Westport, CT, 1998), p. 76.
  • 19. JIC(ME), report, ‘The Internal Security Situation in Cyprus’, undated, annex of: JIC(ME) (48)71 (Final), Internal Security Situation in Cyprus, 25 November 1948, CO537/2639; political situation report (hereafter PSR), January 1945, CO67/323/4, TNA; Bridges, report, ‘Imperial Security in the Middle East’, 2 July 1945, CAB66/67/5/1; Yiangou, Cyprus in World War II, p. 106.
  • 20. Kelling, Countdown to Rebellion, p. 41.
  • 21. ‘Note of a Meeting in the Secretary of State’s Room on the 21st December, 1944’, CO67/323/6, TNA.
  • 22. Ibid.; Luke, minute, 7 May 1945, CO67/323/6, TNA.
  • 23. Woolley to Stanley, 27 August 1944, CO67/323/6, TNA.
  • 24. Crawshaw, The Cyprus Revolt, p. 34.
  • 25. Hyam, Britain’s Declining Empire, pp. 94-95.
  • 26. Woolley to Stanley, 27 August 1944, CO67/323/6, TNA.
  • 27. ‘Note of a Meeting in the Secretary of State’s Room on the 21st December, 1944’; Robinson, minute, 29 March 1945; Luke, minute, 7 May 1945; Barton, minute, 5 June 1945, CO67/323/6, TNA.
  • 28. PSR, March 1945, CO67/323/4, TNA; Yiangou, Cyprus in World War II, pp. 154-156.
  • 29. PSR, March 1945, CO67/323/4; Woolley to Stanley, 19 April and 21 May 1945, CO67/324/5, TNA; Panagiotis Dimitrakis, Military Intelligence in Cyprus: From the Great War to Middle East Crises (London, 2010), p. 60.
  • 30. PSRs, March and April 1945, CO67/323/4; Woolley to Stanley, 21 May and 14 June 1945, CO67/324/5, TNA; Yiangou, Cyprus in World War II, p. 157.
  • 31. Luke, minute, 25 April 1945; Woolley to Hall, 9 October 1945, CO67/324/5, TNA.
  • 32. PSR, October 1945, CO67/323/4, TNA.
  • 33. Ibid.; Dimitrakis, Military Intelligence in Cyprus, pp. 55-56; Judith M. Brown, ‘India’, in: Judith M. Brown and Wm. Roger Louis (eds), The Oxford History of the British Empire. Volume IV: The Twentieth Century (Oxford, 1999), p. 443.
  • 34. PSR, March 1945, CO67/323/4; Peterson, minute, 12 April 1945, HO45/25551, TNA; Yiangou, Cyprus in World War II, pp. 154-156.
  • 35. PSRs, October and November 1945, CO67/323/4, TNA.
  • 36. Dimitrakis, Military Intelligence in Cyprus, pp. 56, 60.
  • 37. Woolley to Stanley, 9 and 14 July 1945 and Luke, minute, 4 October 1945, CO67/324/6; PSRs, September, October, and November 1945, CO67/323/4; PSR, February 1946, CO67/323/7, TNA.
  • 38. PSR, July 1945, CO67/323/4, TNA.
  • 39. Richard Dunphy and Tim Bale, ‘Red Flag Still Flying? Explaining AKEL— Cyprus’s Communist Anomaly’, Party Politics, 13/3 (2007), p. 293.
  • 40. Winster to Creech Jones, 29 December 1947, box 57, file 2, Arthur Creech Jones papers (MSS. Brit. Emp. s.332), Bodleian Library of Commonwealth & African Studies at Rhodes House [hereafter ACJ papers]; Attorney-general’s opening address, 17 December 1945, annex of: Turnbull to Hall, 23 January 1946; Turnbull to Hall, 31 January 1946, CO67/323/8, TNA; Crawshaw, The Cyprus R.evolt, pp. 32-33.
  • 41. Turnbull to Hall, 31 January 1946; ‘Translated Extracts from the Bulletin of PSE’, no. 2, February 1945, annex of: Turnbull to Hall, 23 January 1946, CO67/323/8; ‘Note of a Meeting held in the Secretary of State’s room at 11 a.m. on the 23rd November, 1945’, CO67/330/11, TNA.
  • 42. Halid (president of the Assizes Court of Nicosia), judgment, Rex v. A. Zartides & others, 21 January 1946, annex of: Turnbull to Hall, 23 January 1946; Turnbull to Hall, 31 January 1946, TNA.
  • 43. Turnbull to Hall, 15 December 1945, CO67/323/5, TNA.
  • 44. Barton, minute, 1 January 1946, CO67/323/5, TNA.
  • 45. James R. Vaughan, ‘“A Certain Idea of Britain”: British Cultural Diplomacy in the Middle East, 1945-57’, Contemporary British History, 19/2 (2005), pp. 152-153.
  • 46. Turnbull to Hall, 21 February 1946, CO537/2482, TNA.
  • 47. Ibid.
  • 48. Woolley to Hall, 23/24 March 1946; Martin, minute, 28 March 1946; Hall to Woolley, 29 March 1946, CO537/2482, TNA.
  • 49. Crawshaw, The Cyprus Revolt, p. 33.
  • 50. Commons, 30 January 1946, Hansard, 418, cols 228-229.
  • 51. Commons, 5 March 1946, Hansard, 420, cols 302-303.
  • 52. Ibid, cols 303-304.
  • 53. Lords, 29 July 1946, Hansard, 142, col. 1113.
  • 54. Lawther to Hall, 7 March 1946; Belcher to Hall, 1 May 1946, CO67/323/10, TNA.
  • 55. Woolley to Hall, 24 May 1946; Creech Jones, minute, 5 June 1946, CO67/323/9, TNA.
  • 56. Woolley to Hall, 26 April 1946; Martin to Woolley, 24 July 1946, CO537/2482, TNA.
  • 57. Creech Jones to Coppock, 14 November 1946; Coddock to Creech Jones, 18 November 1946, CO67/323/10, TNA.
  • 58. PSR, November 1946, CO67/323/7, TNA. This report incorrectly named Fantis as general secretary and Ziartides as his assistant. See: unsigned, ‘Note on Communism in Cyprus’, undated, annex of: PSR, July 1948, CO537/4041, TNA.
  • 59. Crawshaw, The Cyprus R.evolt, p. 34.
  • 60. Protopapas, ‘The Rise of a Bi-Polar Party System’, p. 281.
  • 61. Ibid.; PSR, May 1946, CO67/323/7, TNA.
  • 62. Protopapas, ‘The Rise of a Bi-Polar Party System’, p. 281.
  • 63. PSR, May 1946; Luke, minute, 5 July 1946; Barton, minute, 27 July 1946, CO67/323/7, TNA.
  • 64. Protopapas, ‘The Rise of a Bi-Polar Party System’, pp. 280-281.
  • 65. Crawshaw, The Cyprus R.evolt, p. 34.
 
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