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Notes

  • 1. Hong Kong Police Special Branch, report, ‘The Chinese Communist Party in Hong Kong’, 30 June 1949, CO537/4816, TNA.
  • 2. Tsang, A Modern History ofHong Kong, p. 158.
  • 3. Colonial Office, note, ‘Recent changes in policy towards Chinese Communists in Hong Kong’, 12 August 1949, CO537/4815, TNA.
  • 4. Prasenjit Duara, ‘Hong Kong and the New Imperialism in East Asia, 1941-66’, in: Bryna Goodman and David S. G. Goodman (eds), Twentieth- Century Colonialism and China: Localities, the Everyday, and the World (London, 2012), p. 204.
  • 5. Norman J. Miners, ‘Plans for Constitutional Reform in Hong Kong, 1946-52’, China Quarterly, 107 (1986), pp. 468-470, 472; Tsang, Democracy Shelved, pp. 54, 56.
  • 6. Tsang, A Modern History of Hong Kong, p. 148; Clayton, Imperialism Revisited, p. 108.
  • 7. Goodstadt, Profits, Politics and Panics, p. 56.
  • 8. Tsang, Democracy Shelved, pp. 71, 101.
  • 9. Stevenson (British ambassador at Nanking) to Foreign Office, 19 July 1948, CO537/3718, TNA.
  • 10. Grantham to Mayle, 22 November 1947, CO537/2196, TNA; Phil Billingsley, Bandits in Republican China (Stanford, CA, 1988), pp. 10-11.
  • 11. Grantham to Creech Jones, 20 August 1948; unsigned, report, enclosed in: Heathcote-Smith to Lamb, 14 April 1948, CO537/3718, TNA.
  • 12. Grantham to Mayle, 5 April 1948; Grantham to Creech Jones, 12 April 1948, CO537/3718, TNA.
  • 13. Grantham to Creech Jones, 8 September 1948, CO537/2774, TNA.
  • 14. Grantham, ‘Report on Communist and Soviet Activities for the six months ending 30th June 1948’, undated [pages missing], enclosed in: Grantham to Creech Jones, 13 August 1948, CO537/3718, TNA; Tsang, Democracy Shelved, pp. 86-87.
  • 15. Ibid.; Grantham to Creech Jones, 6 September 1948, CO537/3719, TNA.
  • 16. Commons, 24 November 1948, Hansard, 458, cols 1228-1229.
  • 17. Radford, minute, 12 November 1948, CO537/3718, TNA.
  • 18. Loh, Underground Front, pp. 75, 80-81.
  • 19. Colonial Office, note, ‘Recent changes in policy towards Chinese Communists in Hong Kong’, 12 August 1949, CO537/4815, TNA.
  • 20. Chi-kwan Mark, ‘The “Problem of People”: British Colonials, Cold War Powers, and the Chinese Refugees in Hong Kong, 1949-62’, Modern Asian Studies, 41/6 (2007), pp. 1146-1148.
  • 21. Lau Siu-kai, Society and Politics in Hong Kong (Hong Kong, 1993), p. 3.
  • 22. MacDougall to Mayle, 4 March 1948; Mayle, minute, 1 April 1948, CO129/604/5, TNA.
  • 23. Mark, ‘The “Problem of People”’, p. 1149.
  • 24. Grantham to Creech Jones, 3 May 1949 (no. 15) and annexed unsigned memorandum, ‘Effect on trade of immigration control in Hong Kong’, 26 April 1949, CO537/4999, TNA.
  • 25. Cabinet conclusions, 26 May 1949, CAB128/15/38.
  • 26. Cabinet minutes, 26 May 1949, CAB195/7/34.
  • 27. Grantham to Creech Jones, 6 August 1948 and 6 November 1948, CO537/3718, TNA.
  • 28. Grantham to Creech Jones, 6 November 1948; ‘Deportation of Aliens Ordinance’, 29 October 1948, The Hong Kong Government Gazette, annex of: Grantham to Creech Jones, 13 November 1948, CO537/3718, TNA; Hong Kong Legislative Council minutes, 19 October 1949, Hong Kong Hansard.
  • 29. Grantham to Creech Jones, 30 November 1948, CO537/3729, TNA.
  • 30. Grantham to Creech Jones, 21 December 1948, CO129/617/5, TNA.
  • 31. Mark, ‘The “Problem of People”’, p. 1146.
  • 32. Grantham to Creech Jones, 7 January 1948, CO537/2193, TNA.
  • 33. Ibid.; Loh, Underground Front, p. 70.
  • 34. JIC(FE), (48)10 (Final), ‘The Value of Hong Kong to the Chinese Communist Party’, 26 August 1948; MacDougall to the Chancery, British Embassy, Nanking, 2 November 1948, CO537/3718, TNA.
  • 35. Colonial Office, note, ‘Recent changes in policy towards Chinese Communists in Hong Kong’, 12 August 1949, CO537/4815, TNA.
  • 36. Grantham to Creech Jones, 6 November 1948, CO537/3718, TNA.
  • 37. Radford, minute, 13 December 1948, CO129/616/4, TNA.
  • 38. Wallace, minute, 14 December 1948; Roberts-Wray, minute, 23 December 1948, CO129/616/4, TNA. ‘Public Order Ordinance’, 29 October 1948, The Hong Kong Government Gazette.
  • 39. Creech Jones to Grantham, 7 February 1948; Sidebotham, minute, 15 December 1948, CO129/616/4, TNA.
  • 40. See: Christopher Sutton, ‘Britain, Empire and the Origins of the Cold War Youth Race’, Contemporary British History, 30/2 (2016).
  • 41. Colonial Secretariat to the Chancery, British Embassy, Nanking, 6 August 1948; Hong Kong Police Special Branch, report, ‘The Chinese Communist Party in Hong Kong’, 30 June 1949, CO537/4816; Grantham, ‘Report on Communist and Soviet Activities for the six months ending 30th June 1948’, undated [pages missing], enclosed in: Grantham to Creech Jones, 13 August 1948, CO537/3718, TNA; Wong Ting-hong, Hegemonies Compared: State Formation and Chinese School Politics in Poswar Singapore and Hong Kong (London, 2002), pp. 99, 121n83.
  • 42. Grantham, ‘Report on Communist and Soviet Activities for the six months ending 30th June 1948’, undated [pages missing], enclosed in: Grantham to Creech Jones, 13 August 1948; JIC(FE), (48)10 (Final), ‘The Value of Hong Kong to the Chinese Communist Party’, 26 August 1948, CO537/3718, TNA; DSO, Hong Kong, ‘Situation in Hong Kong during January 1948’, CO537/2652, TNA; Christopher Sutton, ‘Britain, the Cold War, and “The Importance of Influencing the Young”: A Comparison of Cyprus and Hong Kong’, Britain and the World, 7/1 (2014), pp. 100-101.
  • 43. Grantham to Creech Jones, 30 November 1948, CO537/3729, TNA.
  • 44. Grantham to Creech Jones, 26 May 1948, CO537/3718, TNA.
  • 45. Ibid.
  • 46. Grantham, ‘Report on Communist and Soviet Activities for the six months ending 30th June 1948’, undated [pages missing], enclosed in: Grantham to Creech Jones, 13 August 1948, CO537/3718, TNA.
  • 47. Anthony Sweeting, A Phoenix Transformed: The Reconstruction of Education in Post-War Hong Kong (Oxford 1993), p. 199.
  • 48. Grantham to Creech Jones, 30 November 1948, CO537/3729, TNA.
  • 49. Radford, minute, 3 December 1948; MacDowell, minute, 4 December 1948; and Lloyd, minute, 6 December 1948; Creech Jones to Grantham, 7 December 1948, CO537/3729, TNA.
  • 50. South China Morning Post, 16 December 1948, cited in: Sweeting, A Phoenix Transformed, p. 199.
  • 51. Anthony Sweeting and Paul Morris, ‘Educational Reform in Post-War Hong Kong: Planning and Crisis Intervention’, International Journal of Educational Development, 13/3 (1993), pp. 208-209; Jonathan S. Grant, ‘Cultural Formation’, in: Lee Pui-tak (ed.), Hong Kong Reintegrating with China: Political, Cultural and Social Dimensions (Hong Kong, 2001), p. 162; Wong, Hegemonies Compared, p. 99; Loh, Underground Front, p. 71; Tsang, Democracy Shelved, p. 85.
  • 52. DSO, monthly report, no. 28, August 1948, CO537/2652; Grantham, ‘Report on Communist and Soviet Activities for the six months ending 30th June 1948’, undated [pages missing], enclosed in: Grantham to Creech Jones, 13 August 1948, CO537/3718; extract from Hong Kong intelligence report, 4 November 1948, CO537/3729, TNA; David A. Levin and Y. C. Jao, ‘Introduction’, in: Y. C. Jao, David A. Levin, Sek Hong Ng, and Elizabeth Sinn (eds), Labour Movement in a Changing Society: The Experience of Hong Kong (Hong Kong, 1988), p. 21.
  • 53. Stephen Wing Kai Chiu and David A. Levin, ‘Contestatory Unionism: Trade Unions in the Private Sector’, in: Stephen Wing Kai Chiu and Tai Lok Lui (eds), The Dynamics of Social Movement in Hong Kong (Hong Kong, 2000), p. 94; Chan Man-lok, Between Red and White: Chinese Communist and Nationalist Movements in Hong Kong, 1945-1958 (unpublished PhD thesis, University of Hong Kong, 2011), p. 66.
  • 54. Grantham, ‘Report on Communist and Soviet Activities for the six months ending 30th June 1948’, undated [pages missing], enclosed in: Grantham to Creech Jones, 13 August 1948, CO537/3718, TNA.
  • 55. Grantham to Creech Jones, 30 November 1948, CO537/3729, TNA.
  • 56. ‘The Trade Unions and Trade Disputes Ordinance’, 1 April 1948, The Hong Kong Government Gazette; Anthony Woodiwiss, Globalisation, Human Rights and Labour Law in Pacific Asia (Cambridge, 1998), p. 169; David A. Levin and Ng Sek-Hong, ‘From an Industrial to a PostIndustrial Economy: Challenges for Human Resource Management in Hong Kong’, in: Anil Verma, Thomas A. Kohan, and Russell D. Lansbury (eds), Employment Relations in the Growing Asian Economies (London, 1999), p. 153n1.
  • 57. Grantham to Creech Jones, 30 November 1948, CO537/3729, TNA; England, Industrial Relations, p. 114.
  • 58. Frederic C. Deyo, Beneath the Miracle: Labor Subordination in the New Asian Industrialism (London, 1989), p. 113.
  • 59. Parry, minute and Grossmith, minute, 8 December 1948, CO537/3729, TNA.
  • 60. Sidebotham, minute, 9 December 1948, CO537/3729, TNA.
  • 61. Scarlett to Sidebotham, 16 December 1948, CO537/3729, TNA.
  • 62. Creech Jones to Grantham, 23 December 1948, CO537/3729, TNA.
  • 63. England, IndustrialR.elations, pp. 114-115.
  • 64. DSO, monthly report, no. 25, May 1948, CO537/2652; Grantham to British Embassy, Nanking, 30 December 1948, CO537/4814, TNA; Li Hua-yu, ‘The Political Stalinization of China: The Establishment of One- Party Constitutionalism, 1948-1954’, Journal of Cold War Studies, 3/2 (2001), pp. 35, 37; Loh, Underground Front, pp. 70-71.
  • 65. Grantham to Creech Jones, 1 April 1949, CO537/4824, TNA; Lison Harris, Lily Ma, and C. B. Fung, ‘A Connecting Door: The Proscription of Local Organizations’, in: Fu Hualing, Carole J. Petersen, and Simon N. M. Young (eds), National Security and Fundamental Freedoms: Hong Kong’s Article 23 Under Scrutiny (Hong Kong, 2005), p. 306.
  • 66. Grant, ‘Cultural Formation’, p. 177n5; Chow Kwok-keung and Ng Sek- hong, ‘Trade Unions, Collective Bargaining and Associated Rights: The Case of Hong Kong’, Hong Kong Law Journal, 22/3 (1992), p. 295.
  • 67. Grantham to Creech Jones, 8 April 1949, CO537/4835, TNA.
  • 68. Grantham to Creech Jones, 1 and 8 April 1949, CO537/4835, TNA.
  • 69. Creech Jones to Grantham, 20 May 1949, CO537/4835, TNA.
  • 70. Creech Jones, memorandum, ‘Hong Kong’, 23 May 1949, CAB129/35/10.
  • 71. Extract from Grantham to Creech Jones, 14 June 1949, CO537/4835, TNA.
  • 72. CCP, report, ‘An understanding of the nature of the Society Ordinance’, translated on 14 June 1949, enclosed in: Heathcote-Smith to Creech Jones, 24 June 1949, CO537/4815, TNA.
  • 73. Loh, Underground Front, p. 76.
  • 74. Hong Kong Police Special Branch, report, ‘The Chinese Communist Party in Hong Kong’, 30 June 1949, CO537/4816, TNA.
  • 75. Ibid.
  • 76. Ibid.
  • 77. Grantham to Creech Jones, 10 August 1949, CO537/4816, TNA.
  • 78. Grantham to Creech Jones, 25 July 1949, CO537/3721, TNA.
  • 79. Unsigned, appendix VIII, ‘Education Department, Hong Kong. Special Bureau’, in: unsigned, report, ‘Second Conference of Directors and Deputy Directors of Education, held in the Department of Education, Fullerton Building, Singapore, on Monday and Tuesday, 4th and 5th September, 1950’, undated, CO968/259, TNA.
  • 80. Crozier, report on the Hong Kong Special Bureau, Education Department, 31 August 1949, CO537/3721, TNA.
  • 81. Paul Morris and Anthony Sweeting, ‘Education and Politics: The Case of Hong Kong from an Historical Perspective’, Oxford Review of Education, 17/3 (1991), p. 256.
  • 82. Mark Hampton, ‘Projecting Britishness to Hong Kong: The British Council and Hong Kong House, Nineteen-Fifties to Nineteen-Seventies’, Historical Research, 85/230 (2012), pp. 693, 695; Philip M. Taylor, The Projection of Britain: British Overseas Publicity and Propaganda, 1919-1939 (Cambridge, 1981), pp. 83-84.
 
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