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Notes

  • 1. Ovendale, ‘Britain, the United States, and the Cold War in South-East Asia’, p. 447.
  • 2. Steven Lee, Outposts of Empire: Korea, Vietnam, and the Origins of the Cold War in Asia, 1949-1954 (London, 1995), p. 18.
  • 3. JIC(FE), (48)10 (Final), ‘The Value of Hong Kong to the Chinese Communist Party’, 26 August 1948; Grantham, ‘Report on Communist and Soviet Activities for the six months ending 30th June 1948’, undated [pages missing], enclosed in: Grantham to Creech Jones, 13 August 1948, CO537/3718, TNA; Loh, Underground Front, p. 73.
  • 4. Grantham to British Embassy, Nanking, 30 December 1948, CO537/4814, TNA.
  • 5. SIFE, report, ‘Review of Communism in South East Asia’, no. 11, 24 March 1948, CO537/2650, TNA.
  • 6. JIC(FE), (48)10 (Final), ‘The Value of Hong Kong to the Chinese Communist Party’, 26 August 1948; Grantham, ‘Report on Communist and Soviet Activities for the six months ending 30th June 1948’, undated [pages missing], enclosed in: Grantham to Creech Jones, 13 August 1948, CO537/3718, TNA.
  • 7. Ibid.
  • 8. SIFE, report, ‘Review of Communism in South East Asia’, no. 16, 31 August 1948, CO537/2650, TNA.
  • 9. SIFE, report, ‘Communism in Hong Kong’, 2 February 1949,

CO537/4814, TNA.

  • 10. Loh, Underground Front, pp. 20, 69-72; Tsang, A Modern History of Hong Kong, p. 153.
  • 11. SIFE, report, ‘Communism in Hong Kong’, 2 February 1949,

CO537/4814, TNA; Loh, Underground Front, p. 70.

  • 12. Mark, Hong Kong and the Cold War, pp. 31-33.
  • 13. Radford, minute, 4 February 1949, CO537/4826, TNA.
  • 14. J ohannes R. Lombardo, ‘A Mission of Espionage, Intelligence and Psychological Operations: The American Consulate in Hong Kong, 1949-64’, Intelligence and National Security, 14/4 (1999), p. 67.
  • 15. Wallace, minute, 12 March 1949, CO537/4815, TNA.
  • 16. Radford, minute, 14 January 1949; Grantham to Creech Jones, 11 February 1949, CO537/4826, TNA; Tsang, The Cold War’s Odd Couple, p. 46.
  • 17. Mark, Hong Kong and the Cold War, p. 177.
  • 18. Phillip M. Taylor, British Propaganda in the Twentieth Century: Selling Democracy (Edinburgh, 1999), p. 238.
  • 19. Lombardo, ‘A Mission of Espionage’, pp. 66, 69; Richard J. Aldrich, Gary D. Rawnsley, and Ming-Yeh T. Rawnsley, ‘Introduction: The Clandestine Cold War in Asia, 1945-65’, Intelligence and National Security, 14/4 (1999), p. 10.
  • 20. MacDonald to Foreign Office, 25 June 1949; Alexander, ‘Report by the Minister of Defence on his visit to Hong Kong, June 6th-June 9th, 1949’, CO537/5132, TNA; Defty, Britain, America and Anti-Communist Propaganda, p. 157; Andrew Rubin, Archives ofAuthority: Empire, Culture, and the Cold War (Princeton, 2012), p. 40; Hugh Wilford, The CIA, the British Left and the Cold War: Calling the Tune? (London, 2003), p. 58.
  • 21. Stevenson to Foreign Office, 5 July 1949; Grantham to Creech Jones, 11 August 1949; Grantham to Hone, 20 June 1949, CO537/5132, TNA.
  • 22. Foreign Office to MacDonald, 16 August 1949, CO537/5132, TNA.
  • 23. Tony Shaw, ‘The Information Research Department of the British Foreign Office and the Korean War, 1950-53’, Journal of Contemporary History, 34/2 (1999), p. 264n4.
  • 24. Morgan to Ralph Murray (head of the IRD), 7 October 1949, CO537/5132, TNA.
  • 25. David Clayton, ‘The Consumption of Radio Broadcast Technologies in Hong Kong, c.1930-1960’, Economic History Review, 57/4 (2004), pp. 699, 711-712.
  • 26. Extract from ‘Memorandum relating to problems which may become subjects of controversy or negotiation between Hong Kong and Chinese Communist regime’, undated, annex of: Radford, departmental note, 12 November 1949, CO537/5132, TNA.
  • 27. Alban Webb, London Calling: Britain, the BBC World Service and the Cold War (London, 2014), p. 69.
  • 28. John Jenks, British Propaganda and News Media in the Cold War (Edinburgh, 2006), p. 73.
  • 29. Grantham to Creech Jones, 8 September 1948, CO537/2774, TNA.
  • 30. Cabinet conclusions, 8 March 1949, CAB128/15/18; Cabinet minutes, 8 March 1949, CAB195/7/18.
  • 31. Grantham to Creech Jones, 8 September 1948, CO537/2774; Heathcote- Smith to Creech Jones, 23 April and 14 June 1949, CO537/4849, TNA.
  • 32. Grantham to Creech Jones, 3 May 1949 (no. 16), annex II of: Merton and Hoskins (joint secretaries, Cabinet Far Eastern (Official) Committee), note, ‘Hong Kong’, 11 May 1949, F.E.(0)(49)27, CO129/604/6, TNA.
  • 33. Commons, 5 May 1949, Hansard, 464, cols 1249-1252; Cabinet conclusions, 28 April 1949, CAB128/15/30; Cabinet conclusions, 26 May 1949, CAB128/15/38.
  • 34. Chi-kwan Mark, ‘A Reward for Good Behaviour in the Cold War: Bargaining over the Defence of Hong Kong, 1949-1957’, The International History Review, 22/4 (2000), p. 838.
  • 35. ‘ Extract from Minutes of a Meeting of the China and South East Asia Committee’, 19 May 1949, CO537/5001, TNA.
  • 36. Grantham to Creech Jones, 12 May 1949, CO537/5001, TNA.
  • 37. Aide memoire, ‘Hong Kong—Command and Government’, 1 June 1949, CO537/5001, TNA.
  • 38. COS (49) 82nd meeting minutes, 1 June 1949, CO537/5001, TNA.
  • 39. Wolf, ‘To Secure a Convenience’, p. 309.
  • 40. Alexander, ‘Report by the Minister of Defence on his visit to Hong Kong, June 6th-June 9th, 1949’, CO537/5132, TNA.
  • 41. Immigrants Control Ordinance, 1 April 1949, Hong Kong Government Gazette; Law Kam-yee and Lee Kim-ming, ‘Citizenship, Economy and Social Exclusion of Mainland Chinese Immigrants in Hong Kong’, Journal of Contemporary Asia, 36/2 (2006), p. 219.
  • 42. Heathcote-Smith to Creech Jones, 14 June 1949, CO537/4849, TNA.
  • 43. Colonial Office, note, ‘Recent changes in policy towards Chinese Communists in Hong Kong’, 12 August 1949, CO537/4815, TNA; Law and Lee, ‘Citizenship, Economy and Social Exclusion’, p. 219.
  • 44. Agnes S. Ku, ‘Immigration Policies, Discourses, and the Politics of Local Belonging in Hong Kong (1950-1980)’, Modern China, 30/3 (2004), p. 334.
  • 45. Carroll, A Concise History of Hong Kong, p. 137.
  • 46. Loh, Underground Front, p. 80; Brian Hook, ‘Changing British Perceptions of the China Threat, 1945-2000’, in: Herbert Yee and Ian Storey (eds), The China Threat: Perceptions, Myths and Reality (London, 2002), p. 131.
  • 47. Chu, Chinese Communists and Hong Kong Capitalists, p. 39.
  • 48. Tsang, Democracy Shelved, pp. 181-182.
  • 49. Creech Jones, circular dispatch to the colonies, ‘Powers for Dealing with Subversive Activities’, 18 February 1950, CO537/5389, TNA.
  • 50. ‘Expulsion of Undesirables Ordinance’, 2 September 1949, The Hong Kong Government Gazette.
  • 51. Radford, minute, 8 December 1949; Hall, minute, 14 December 1949, CO129/604/7, TNA.
  • 52. ‘ennifer Amos, ‘Embracing and Contesting: The Soviet Union and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948-1958’, in: Stefan-Ludwig Hoffmann (ed.), Human Rights in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge, 2011), p. 147.
  • 53. Grantham to Creech Jones, 8 May 1950, CO129/624/8, TNA.
  • 54. Grantham to Creech Jones, 23 December 1950, CO129/624/8, TNA.
  • 55. Laura Madokoro, Unwanted Refugees: Chinese Migration and the Making of a Global Humanitarian Agenda, 1949-1989 (unpublished PhD thesis, University of British Columbia, 2012), p. 82.
  • 56. Grantham to Griffiths, 1 June 1950, CO537/5240, TNA.
  • 57. Unsigned, ‘Notes of the meeting with the governor of Hong Kong held at 2.30 p.m. on 28th June, 1950’, CO537/5240, TNA.
  • 58. Unsigned, ‘Notes of the meeting in the Secretary of State’s room on 4th July, 1950’, CO537/5240, TNA.
  • 59. Carol Jones and Jon Vagg, Criminal Justice in Hong Kong (London, 2007), p. 223.
  • 60. Unsigned, ‘Minutes of the Ninth Commissioner-General Conference held at Bukit Serene on Saturday and Sunday, 22nd & 23rd January, 1949’, CO717/162/6, TNA.
  • 61. Joel Kotek, Students and the Cold War (Basingstoke, 1996), pp. x-xi.
  • 62. Extract from the Periscope column, Newsweek Magazine [US], 18 April 1949, enclosed in: Robert Scott to Lloyd, 11 July 1949, CO537/4312, TNA.
  • 63. Unsigned, report, ‘Conference of Directors and Deputy Directors of Education, held in the Department of Education, Singapore on Thursday and Friday, 23rd and 24th June, 1949’, CO537/3721, TNA.
  • 64. Jbid.
  • 65. Jbid.; Grantham to Creech Jones, 25 July 1949; Crozier, report on the Hong Kong Special Bureau, Education Department, 31 August 1949, CO537/3721, TNA.
  • 66. Sutton, ‘Britain, the Cold War, and “The Importance of Influencing the Young”’, p. 105.
  • 67. Tsang, Democracy Shelved, pp. 110-112, 118.
  • 68. Jbid, p. 112.
  • 69. Jbid, pp. 116-118.
  • 70. Jbid., pp. 151, 155; Cabinet conclusions, 22 November 1951, CAB128/23/10; Lyttelton, memorandum, ‘Hong Kong’, 19 November
  • 1951, CAB129/48/25.
  • 71. Tsang, Democracy Shelved, p. 157.
  • 72. Loh, Underground Front, pp. 92-93; Lombardo, ‘A Mission of Espionage’, p. 67.
  • 73. Smart, The Shek Kip Mei Myth, pp. 77-78, 94.
  • 74. Lyttleton, memorandum, ‘Constitutional Reform in Hong Kong’, 16 May
  • 1952, CAB129/52/15; Tsang, Democracy Shelved, pp. 157-158, 197-198.
  • 75. Cabinet conclusions, 20 May 1952, CAB128/25/4.
  • 76. John Darwin, ‘Hong Kong in British Decolonisation’, in: Judith M. Brown and Rosemary Foot (eds), Hong Kong’sTransitions, 1842-1997(Basingstoke, 1997), p. 23.

CHAPTER 12

 
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