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Notes

  • 1. Martin, minute, 26 May 1949, CO537/4976, TNA.
  • 2. Taki and Officer, ‘Civil Society’, p. 206.
  • 3. Tsang, Democracy Shelved, p. 212.
  • 4. Tsang, A Modern History of Hong Kong, pp. 206-207.
  • 5. Grant, ‘Cultural Formation’, p. 160; Tsang, Democracy Shelved, p. 213.
  • 6. Yiangou, Cyprus in World War II, p. 101.
  • 7. Tsang, Democracy Shelved, p. 212.
  • 8. Kelling, Countdown to Rebellion, p. 75.
  • 9. Tombazos, ‘AKEL’, p. 226.
  • 10. Suha Bolukbasi, ‘The Cyprus Dispute and the United Nations: Peaceful Non-Settlement between 1954 and 1996’, International Journal ofMiddle East Studies, 30 (1998), p. 413.
  • 11. Stephen G. Xydis, ‘The UN General Assembly as an Instrument of Greek Policy: Cyprus, 1954-58’, The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 12/2 (1968), p. 142; Evanthis Hatzivassiliou, ‘The Red Line: Pressure and Persuasion in Greek Diplomatic Strategies on Cyprus, 1945-2004’, Mediterranean Quarterly, 20/1 (2009), pp. 54-55.
  • 12. Anne E. Gorsuch, Youth in Revolutionary Russia: Enthusiasts, Bohemians, Delinquents (Bloomington, IN, 2000), p. 12; Kotek, Students and the Cold War, p. vii.
  • 13. Sutton, ‘Britain, the Cold War, and “The Importance of Influencing the Young”’, p. 106.
  • 14. Matthias Neumann, The Communist Youth League and the Transformation of the Soviet Union (London, 2011), p. xiv.
  • 15. Sutton, ‘Britain, Empire and the Origins of the Cold War Youth Race’, pp. 3, 8-9.
  • 16. Sutton, ‘Britain, the Cold War, and “The Importance of Influencing the Young”’, pp. 93, 106-107.
  • 17. Cyprus Intelligence Committee, report, ‘Security Implications of the System of Education in Cyprus’, 12 September 1955, CIC(55)12 (Final), CO537/4312, TNA; Harding to Hare, 17 October 1956, CO926/157, TNA. See also: CO926/438 and CO926/914.
  • 18. Weiler, ‘Forming Responsible Trade Unions’, pp. 367-370.
  • 19. Ibid, p. 369.
  • 20. Hall, circular dispatch to the colonies, 24 August 1946, CO129/615/1, TNA.
  • 21. Paul Kelemen, ‘Planning for Africa: The British Labour Party’s Colonial Development Policy, 1920-1964’, Journal of Agrarian Change, 7/1 (2007), p. 84.
  • 22. Winster to Creech Jones, 28 October 1947, box 57, file 2, ACJ papers.
  • 23. Kelemen, ‘Planning for Africa’, p. 84.
  • 24. Daniel W.B. Lomas, ‘Labour Ministers, Intelligence and Domestic AntiCommunism, 1945-1951’, Journal of Intelligence History, 12/2 (2013), p. 118; Carruthers, Winning Hearts and Minds, p. 12.
  • 25. Weiler, ‘Forming Responsible Trade Unions’, p. 381.
  • 26. Ian R. G. Spencer, British Immigration Policy since 1939: The Making of Multi-Racial Britain (London, 1997), pp. 8, 21, 46, 171n63.
  • 27. Ibid., pp. 67, 153.
  • 28. Mark, ‘The “Problem of People”’, pp. 1146-1147.
  • 29. Paul B. Rich, Race and Empire in British Politics (Cambridge, 1986), p. 178.
  • 30. A. J. Stockwell, ‘Leaders, Dissidents and the Disappointed: Colonial Students in Britain as Empire Ended’, The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 36/3 (2008), p. 489.
  • 31. Sutton, ‘Britain, Empire and the Origins of the Cold War Youth Race’, pp. 9-10.
  • 32. MI5, memorandum, ‘Communist Influence on Coloured African Students in the U.K.’, September 1948, CO537/4312, TNA.
  • 33. Gorsuch, minute, 23 December 1948, CO537/4312, TNA.
  • 34. Creech Jones, circular dispatch to the colonies, 25 May 1949, CO537/4380, TNA; Sutton, ‘Britain, Empire and the Origins of the Cold War Youth Race’, p. 13.
  • 35. lohanna Rainio-Niemi, The Ideological Cold War: The Politics of Neutrality in Austria and Finland (London, 2014), p. 11.
  • 36. Anne Deighton, ‘Britain and the Cold War, 1945-1955’, in: Melvyn P. Leffler and Odd Arne Westad (eds), The Cambridge History of the Cold War: Volume 1: Origins (Cambridge, 2010), p. 119.
  • 37. Anthony Webster, The Debate on the Rise of the British Empire (Manchester, 2006), pp. 7-15.
  • 38. Peter Weiler, British Labour and the Cold War (Stanford, CA, 1988), p. 189.
  • 39. Lawrence Black, ‘“The Bitterest Enemies of Communism”: Labour Revisionists, Atlanticism and the Cold War’, Contemporary British History, 15/3 (2001), p. 28.
  • 40. Weiler, British Labour and the Cold War, pp. 190, 193, 216, 228, 280.
  • 41. Trevor Munroe, The Cold War and the Jamaican Left, 1950-1955: Reopening the Files (Kingston, 1992), p. 149.
  • 42. Commons, 1 March 1948, Hansard, 448, col. 39; Butler, Britain and the Empire, p. 91.
  • 43. David Percox, Britain, Kenya and the Cold War: Imperial Defence, Colonial Security and Decolonisation (London, 2004), p. 26.
  • 44. Phillip Deery, ‘“The Secret Battalion”: Communism in Britain during the Cold War’, Contemporary British History, 13/4 (1999), pp. 2, 19.
  • 45. Hyam, ‘Africa and the Labour Government’, p. 245.
  • 46. James Vaughan, ‘“Cloak Without Dagger”: How the Information Research Department Fought Britain’s Cold War in the Middle East, 1948-56’, Cold War History, 4/3 (2004), p. 58.
  • 47. John Kent, ‘The British Empire and the Origins of the Cold War, 1944-49’, in: Anne Deighton (ed.), Britain and the First Cold War (London, 1990),

p. 166.

  • 48. Westad, The Global Cold War, p. 89.
  • 49. Kent, British Imperial Strategy, p. 217.
  • 50. Winston Churchill, The River War: An Historical Account ofthe Reconquest of the Soudan (London, 1899), p. 13; Sutton, ‘Britain, Empire and the Origins of the Cold War Youth Race’, p. 14; Furedi, Colonial Wars, p. 4.
  • 51. Hyam, Britain’s Declining Empire, p. 410.
  • 52. Martin, minute, 15 March 1949, CO537/4309, TNA.
  • 53. Vaughan, ‘A Certain Idea of Britain’, p. 153.
  • 54. W. Scott Lucas, ‘Beyond Freedom, Beyond Control: Approaches to Culture and the State-Private Network in the Cold War’, in: Giles Scott- Smith and Hans Krabbendam (eds), The Cultural Cold War in Western Europe (London, 2003), p. 53.
 
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