Some skills involved in solving arithmetical problems are used only for such functions, while other overlap with other areas of learning. Children with problems in the latter group may therefore have difficulties in other areas as well.

? Arithmetic problems require language comprehension skills (the ability to understand the words used to explain the problem), and so specific arithmetic difficulty may be associated with language disorders.

? Reading ability is required to understand a written arithmetical problem, so there is an association with reading difficulty.

? Writing difficulty may interfere with the ability to write down numbers and symbols.

? Problems with revisualization (remembering) of numbers may be associated with difficulties revisualizing words, so specific arithmetic difficulty may be associated with spelling difficulty.

In some children, specific arithmetic difficulty may be an isolated problem owing to difficulties with skills largely confined to arithmetic. The difficulties that such children have are many and varied. Some of the deficits involve the areas detailed as follows.