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Home arrow Political science arrow Development Centre Studies Tackling the Policy Challenges of Migration : Regulation, Integration, Development.


  • 1. Even though integration policies are strongly connected to the regulation of flows and the migration-development nexus (see Chapter 5), they concern more the local, national and even regional governance levels than the global one.
  • 2. ILO Conventions are available at:
  • 3. Available at:
  • 4. Legge 15 luglio 2009, n. 94.
  • 5. Arizona SB 1070.
  • 6. The next UN High-level Dialogue on Migration and Development will take place in 2013.
  • 7. The French Ministry of Immigration, Integration, National Identity and Mutually Supportive Development (Developpement solidaire), which was created in May 2007 after the election of Nicolas Sarkozy as president, was absorbed in February 2011 by the Ministry of the Interior, now in charge of migration issues.
  • 8. Although the concept of co-development is generally associated with migration, it can also include other issues related to North-South relations, such as fair trade, responsible tourism or environment (sustainable co-development).
  • 9. The idea of a WMO was in particular proposed by Bhagwati (2003) and Helton (2003).
  • 10. Hatton argues that real wage gaps between rich and poor countries are due to differences in overall total factor productivity, not in relative factor endowments (which is the case for trade). Therefore, the incentive to migrate depends on absolute rather than on comparative advantage.
  • 11. Symbolised by the 9 September 2001 New York attacks and the 7 July 2005 London bombings.
  • 12. O'Rourke and Sinnott (2006) find that non-economic factors are more important for individuals not in the labour force. It is indeed easier to set up side payments for labour market participants, for instance social safety nets and training programmes, than for the rest of the population (see Chapter 5).
  • 13. Trade protectionism implies, no matter the choice of policy instrument (tariffs, subsidies, quotas, for example), higher prices for consumers and lower productivity levels.
  • 14. “Illegal immigrants pour across border seeking work", Los Angeles Times, 19 September, 2010.
  • 15. “Fortress Europe" refers to the different European immigration policies that are liable to endanger migrant lives, such as stricter asylum laws, border militarisation, detention camps, or still deportation. For more details, see: pages/campfatalrealities.htm.
  • 16. A rapid population growth implies a strong demand for current consumption goods, housing and infrastructure, which, in turn, leads to an increase in labour demand. This “cumulative causation" contributes to the rapid and self-sustained development of urban areas (Krugman, 1991).
  • 17. Wadsworth (2010) argues that contrary to the traditional belief that immigration increases insecurity, US cities with the largest growth in the proportion of immigrant population between 1990 and 2000 experienced larger decreases in homicide and robbery rates.
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