1. In this chapter, “South" and “developing countries" are used interchangeably.
2. The questionnaire for the interviews is included in Annex 3.A1.
3. Based on Wolfensohn (2007), OECD (2010) develops a “four-speed" world concept, dividing countries designated as affluent (high-income countries), converging (countries catching up to the living standards of the affluent), struggling (countries facing a middle-income “glass ceiling"), and poor (under the weight of extreme poverty).
4. As one interviewee in Ghana put it, “because they are in the minority, the topic is not a priority for the government". In fact, the tendency has been to put more resources into controlling borders and irregular immigrants. In Costa Rica, for instance, a regularisation drive of irregular migrants was followed by harsher penalties in 2011 for those trying to follow in their footsteps. Fines were set for immigrants overstaying their visas, it became harder to get residency by marrying a Costa Rican and raising the financial requirement necessary for residency. New criminal rules were also put into place against immigrant smuggling.
5. Decision 1437 of 19 February 2004.
6. Section 27 of the constitution states that “no person shall be discriminated against by a law-enforcing agent or public officer or person in public authority" but an additional clause (b) adds that “the right does not apply with respect to persons who are not Sierra Leoneans or those who acquire citizenship of Sierra Leone by registration, by naturalisation or by resolution of parliament".
7. www.fidh.org, “Racial Discrimination in Nigeria: a UN committee denounces the inertia of the Nigerian government".
8. Discriminatory practices against immigrants came up in many interviews, such as “Immigrants contribute mostly positively to the economy, but not necessarily legally. Immigrants would register a business under a Ghanaian name and contribute positively, but it's illegal to run that business". Without registration, immigrants are automatically barred from most services.
9. As pointed out in interviews, for instance, “migrants from Burkina Faso are often highly welcome in Ghana because of their hard work" and “migrants contribute positively to the Ghanaian economy by establishing businesses and creating opportunities for employment".
10. While many migrants cross intermediate countries in route to another country, a rising phenomenon is that of migrants staying in the transit countries and taking advantage of the flow of people coming through. Their impact on local economies can be considerable. In Agadez for instance, economic and cultural spillovers are being enjoyed by emerging transit cities. The city is being transformed by the new dynamic and lucrative transit migration sector: hotels, food, networks, all being exploited by the many individuals choosing to stay rather than move on (Amadou et al. 2009).
11. Reuters, 2 July 2011, “Libyan crisis hammering Niger economy".
12. In August and September 2010, an estimated 600 to 700 immigrants were arrested during police raids in Morocco and left deep in the desert near the Algerian border (Touzenis, 2010).
13. In general, respondents answered that integration was not a problem for immigrants in Ghana, giving answers such as “immigrants are hardly noticed and treated differently in Ghana", “some immigrants move in quietly without any problems" and “the government should be responsible for all people". Some even expressed that “with time refugees are socially and economically integrated into Ghanaian society. Some of the Liberian refugees are still in Ghana as workers and are married to Ghanaians." Even though they may be mostly in irregular situations, as one respondent put it, “immigrants in Ghana are not really integrated formally since it is difficult to get your papers straight, but nevertheless it is easy to blend in, especially if you are black".
14. “Illegal immigrants pour across border seeking work", Los Angeles Times, 19 September 2010.
15. Although some countries in the South, such as Ghana, India, Mexico and South Africa, are currently spending millions on such identification systems, it is not clear whether this will help or deter the integration of immigrants. These programmes usually have an enormous implementation cost since they include expensive anti-counterfeiting mechanisms such as biometric technology, including fingerprints and optical security features.
16. That is until relative deprivation between the two groups spreads. One respondent answered that “some immigrants end up taking jobs that Ghanaians should be entitled to, using Ghanaian facilities but paying their taxes in their home countries, or engaging in criminal activities in Ghana," and “the government needs to set out clear rules to ensure that immigrants do not compete unfavourably against poor Ghanaians and do not have access to more/better facilities than Ghanaians. In many responses, caution was exercised in stating that immigrants are welcome as long as they obey the rules, in answers such as “immigrants are integrated as long as they respect the rules and regulations of the host community"; “unless a crime is committed, they have no problems living in any part of Ghana"; and "tension occurs if a crime is committed or if the immigrant appears to have some form of upper hand over the locals". One respondent answered that some immigrants contribute economically to the country, while others "also engage in negative practices like the drug trade and illegal mining activities thereby damaging the environment."
17. The average of ethnic and linguistic fractionalisation is, respectively, 0.24 and 0.23 in OECD countries, as against 0.73 and 0.75 in West Africa.
18. SKBo is the acronym given to the region comprising the cities of Sikasso (Mali), Korhogo (Cote d'Ivoire) and Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso).