1. Moses and Letnes (2004) estimate that the world efficiency gain from partial withdrawal of mobility restrictions (less than 1%) would have represented around 10% of world GDP in 1998. Hatton (2007) argues that these gains are ten times as large as the benefits from trade liberalisation.
2. By attracting mainly Mexican temporary labour, the American Bracero programme, which ran from 1942 and 1964, was a way for the US agricultural sector to deal with labour shortages caused by the participation of the country in World War-II (Hatton and Williamson, 2005).
3. In a certain way, irregular immigration enables receiving countries to benefit from more and cheaper labour without having to bear the fiscal burden (Hanson, 2010). However, authorised migration inflows help finance pay-as-you-go pension systems, particularly in European countries (Chojnicki et al., 2005). Higher immigration and regularisation measures also increase tax revenues. The regularisation of undocumented immigrants in the United States may generate USD 4.5 billion to USD 5.4 billion in additional net tax revenue (Hinojosa-Ojeda, 2010).
4. The US Department of Labor Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) for Workers Program assists workers who have lost their jobs or have suffered a reduction of hours and wages as a result of increased imports or shifts in production outside US territory. The TAA Program aims to help participants obtain new jobs, ensure they retain employment and earn wages comparable to their prior employment. In its current state, it does not cover workers who become unemployed as a result of immigration.
5. The Obama administration's proposed budget for 2012 included immigrant integration programmes worth USD 20 million.
6. In 2000, a set of three protocols (the Palermo Protocols) on trafficking were adopted by the United Nations. Since its entry into force in 2003 many countries have passed strong legislation against human trafficking. In 2002 and 2003, Benin, Nigeria and Togo signed a series of agreements, together with United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), on common border issues, including trafficking. The signing followed earlier agreements by Cote d'Ivoire with Senegal and Mali on child labour in 2000.
7. Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Liberia, Niger, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Togo. Information available at:
8. The last round of regularisation took place in July 2011, during which immigrants were provided with biometric identification cards.
9. The last round of regularisation took place in June and July 2011.
10. Annex to the Global Forum for Migration and Development Roundtable 2.1 Background Paper (WHO/IOM).
11. On average, around 21% of foreign students in OECD countries do not return to their countries of origin (OECD, 2010).
12. See www.solarenergyfoundation.com/.
13. Among them, France (www.envoidargent.fr), Italy (www.mandasoldiacasa.it) and Spain (www.remesas.org).
14. Social capital is a public good that includes ties of trust between the members of society (Coleman, 1990). It implies the respect for collective commitments, thus strengthening social cohesion. Social capital has a positive impact on other forms of capital, such as financial and human capital.
15. The Programa Iniciativa Ciudadana 3x1 was created in Mexico in 2002. For every dollar invested in local development by Mexican HTAs, the government brings three more dollars: one comes from the federal government, another from the state government and a third from the municipality. The 3x1 Programme has helped fund a wide range of initiatives including social and educational projects (Vasquez Mota, 2005).
16. The Salvadoran programme Unidos por la Solidaridad aims at co-ordinating the anti-poverty efforts of public authorities with the private sector and associations of Salvadorans living abroad. The funds provided by contributors are administered by the Social Investment Fund for Local Development, which distributes available resources through open calls for grant proposals from local communities.
17. Would-be migrants are rational agents who are not only attracted by wage differentials but also employment opportunities (Todaro, 1969). If there are limited opportunities, as in periods of economic crisis, foreign workers do not come. Moreover, many immigrants already in the host country return home, at least when they have the guarantee they can emigrate again later (Keeley, 2009). This is essentially what happened with a number of immigrants from Eastern Europe living in Ireland and the United Kingdom following the 2008 economic crisis.