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Processed Foods = Obesity

By the twenty-first century, Holland and Petrovich were reporting on the addiction to a list of processed foods high in sugar, fat, and salt, which was a consequence of constant brain bombardment from all media that signaled leptin and insulin, and led to addictive behavior [2,3]. Those foods, associated with addictive behavior and activation of addictive responses in the brain, include chocolate, French fries, breakfast cereals, snack foods, sweet baked goods, dairy products, and pizza [4,5]. The evidence for addictive mechanisms related to highly processed foods crosses many types of research and needs further research so public health policy can begin to discuss the damage done by overeating.

Determining Body Fat Deposition

The body mass index (BMI) is still in use today as the means of assessing body adiposity despite the fact that it does not reflect the heterogeneity of fat deposition. Waist circumference (WC) is an important measure of adiposity since it relates better to an individual's health risk [6]. Some people store more of their excess fat viscerally, which increases WC. Research shows that fat distribution around the vital organs is a marker for insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. WC can complement the BMI in assessing morbidity. High risk is defined as a WC >40 in. (102 cm) for men and >35 in. (88 cm) for women [7].

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